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Child Psychology Unit 1


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List (with ages) Freud's psychosexual stages in order.
Oral - birth to 12/18 months
Anal - 12/18 months to 3 years
Phallic - 3 to 6 years
Latent - 6 years to puberty
Genital - puberty to early adulthood
Explain Freud's oral psychosexual stage
baby’s source of pleasure involves mouth (sucking and feeding)
Explain Freud's anal stage of development.
Sexual gratification is derived from toliet training (expelling feces).
Explain Freud's phallic stage of development.
They are attached to the parent of the opposite sex, and are identifying with the parent of the same sex.
Explain Freud's latent stage of development.
Relative calm between the stages.
Explain Freud's genital stage of development.
sexual impulses and maturity
List (with ages) the eight psychosocial stages that Erikson constructed.
Basic trust vs. mistrust - (birth to 12/18 months)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt - (12/18 months - 3 years)
Initiative vs. guilt - (3 to 6 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority - (6 yrs. to puberty)
Identity vs. Identity confusion (puberty to young adult)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
Explain Erikson's stage: Basic trust vs. Mistrust
baby develops a sense of whether world is a good and safe place, virtue=hope
Explain Erikson's stage of automony vs. self doubt
child develops a balance of independence and self sufficiency over shame and doubt virtue=will
Explain Erikson's theory of initiative vs. guilt.
child develops initiative when trying out new activities and is not overwhelmed by guilt, virtue=purpose
Explain Erikson's stage of industry vs. inferiority
child must learn skills of culture or face feelings of incompetence virtue=skill
Explain Erikson's theory of identity vs. identity confusion.
adolescent must determine own sense of self virtue=fidelity
Explain Erikson's theory of intimacy vs. isolation.
person seeks to make commitments to others, if unsuccessful, mmay suffer from isolation virtue=love
Explain Erikson's stage of generativity vs. Stagnation.
mature adult is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation virtue-care
Explain Erikson's theory of integrity vs. despair.
person achieves acceptance of own life, death, despair virtue-wisdom
List (with ages) Piaget's cognitive stages.
Sensorimotor (birth to age 2)
Preoperational (2 to 7 years)
Concrete operations (7 to 11 years)
Formal operations (11 to adulthood)
Describe Piaget's four stages of cognitive thinking.
Sensorimotor (birth to 2 yrs) infant gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation to the environment through sensory and motor activity
Preoperational (2 to 7) child develops a representational system and uses symbols to represent people, places, and events, language and imaginative play are important, thinking is still not logical
Concrete operations (7 to 11) child can solve problems logically if they are focused on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly
Formal operations (11 years through adult) person can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical situations, and think about possibilities
What is classical conditioning?
learning based on associating a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that ordinarily does elicit the response
What is operant conditioning?
Learning based on reinforcement or punishment
What is reinforcement?
a stimulus that encourages repetition of a desired behavior
Describe the difference between positive and negative reinforcement.
Pos. Reinforcement: giving a reward
Neg. Reinforcement: encourages repetition by removing an aversive event
What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement?
Punishment is a stimulus that discourages behavior, wheras negative reinforcement encourages repitition because of the removal of an adverse effect.
What is the social learning theory?
theory that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models
what is the cognitive theory?
that thought processes are central to development
What is a scheme?
Piaget’s term for organized patterns of behavior used in different situations
What is the difference between assimilation and accomodation?
Piaget’s term for incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure / changes in a cognitive structure to include new information
what is a correlation?
statistical relationship between variables
What are some advantages and disadvantages to a case study?
Adv. Flexibility, detailed picture of one person’s behavior and development
Dis. May not generalize to others, conclusions are not directly testable
What is a longitudinal study?
study design to assess changes in a sample over time, study the same children over time to see changes, similarities
What is a cross sectional study?
study design in which people of different ages re assessed on one occasion, different aged children are observed at the same time to see differences
Fertilization of egg
union of sperm and ovum fuse to produce a zygote
What is the difference between dizyotic and monozyotic twins?
Dizygotic (two egg) twins – twins conceived by the union of two different ova (or a single ovum that has split) with two different sperm cells, fraternal twins
Monozygotic (one egg) twins – twins resulting form the division of a single zygote after fertilization, identical twins
chemical that carries inherited instructions for the formation and function of body cells
small segments of DNA located in definite positions of particular chromosomes
coils of DNA that carry the genes
What is dominant vs. recessive genes, and who studied this?
when a child receives contradictory alleles, the dominant one is expressed, when a child receives identical recessive alleles, the recessive one will be expressed
What is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous?
possessing two identical alleles for a trait / possessing two different alleles for a trait
what ist he difference between a genotype and a phenotype?
genetic makeup of a person, containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics / observable characteristics of a person
What is tay-sachs disease
degenerative disease of the brain and nerve cells, resulting in death before the age 5
fluid withdrawn to show chromosomes and to detect infection or abnormality
chronic villus sampling
small piece of placenta is removed to test tissues, dna, chromosomes to detect any problems
prenatal medical procedure using high frequency sound waves to detect the outline of a fetus and its movements, so as to determine whether a pregnancy is progressing normally
characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations
germinal stage
first 2 weeks of prenatal development, characterized by rapid cell division, increasing complexity and differentiation and implantation in the wall of the uterus
fetal stage
final stage of gestation (from 8 weeks to birth) characterized by increased detail of body parts and greatly enlarged body size
embryonic stage
second stage of gestation, 2 – 8 weeks, rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs
list the three stages of pregnancy with ages.
germanic - first two weeks
embryonic - 2 weeks to 8 weeks
fetal - 8 weeks until birth
critical period
specific time when a given event or its absence has the greatest impact on development
capable of causing birth defects
classes to distract from pain, breathing and exercises
caesarian section
delivery of a baby by surgical removal from the uterus
low birth weight
weight of less than 5/5 pounds at birth because of prematurely or beings small for date
infants born before completely the thirty seventh week of gestation
standard measurement of a newborn’s condition, appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration
sickle cell anemia
deformed, fragile red blood cells that can clog the blood vessels, depriving the body of oxygen, symptoms include severe pain, stunted growth, frequent infections, leg ulcers, gallstones, susceptibility to pneumonia and stroke
natural childbirth
method of childbirth that seeks to prevent pain by eliminating the mother’s fear through education about the physiology of reproduction and training in breathing and relaxation during delivery

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