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microbiology final exam cards


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Microbiology is the study of:
microorganisms and how they effect living things.
Pathogens are:
disease producing microorganisms.
Tyndallization is the process of:
alternating processes of heating and cooling to kill endospores.
The book of Leviticus in the Bibile was probably the first book that dealt with:
public health.
Pasteur developed specific vaccines against anthrax in sheep by using with of the following?
a. saprophytes
b. heat labile bacterium
c. acetobacteria
d. attenuated pathogens
d. attenuated pathogens
The theory of biogenesis states that:
life comes from life and is self-producing.
All organic compounds contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and:
What is the smallest unit of structure and function in all living organisms?
a cell
Monosaccarides, disaccharides and polysaccharies are examples of:
The building blocks of large protein molecules are called:
amino acids.
A solution with a pH of 12 can be called:
a base.
Compounds that are added to as solution to prevent sudden deviations in pH are known as:
The nucleic acid that contains the call's genetic information is the:
Which type of microscope is useful for viewing viruses?
The ability of a lens in a microscope to distinguish clearly between two objects lying close together is called:
Bacteria may survive unfavorable conditions by:
forming spores.
A major feature of the cell or plasma membrane is that:
it selectively controls the passage of materials.
The ideal temperature for growing most bacteria is:
37 degrees Celsius
A cell obtains energy during the process of:
Bacteria require ____, ____, ____, and ____ for growth.
neutral pH
Father of microbiology.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Developed antiseptic surgery.
Lord Joseph Lister
Classification system developed by Linnaeus.
binomial nomenclature
Control center for all cell activity.
Discovered penicillin.
Sir Alexander Flemming
Basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
Established postulates about cause and effect relationships between microorganisms and disease.
Robert Koch
Cell powerhouse from which energy is release.
A father of bacteriology and immunology.
Louis Pasteur
Created oral polio vaccine.
Albert Sabin
Name the microorganisms that make up the five protist group:
Bacteria is categorized by:
shape, color, and ability to stain
What provides mobility in mastigophora protozoa?
Gram stain differentiates between:
gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
What condition are needed for the growth of molds?
darkness, warmth, air, moisture, and food
What genera of bacteria form spores?
Two genera of rod shaped bacteria, bacillus and clostridium have the ability to develop a specialized structure for survival called an:
Clostridium causes:
gangrene and lockjaw
Bacteria are classified as (by):
a. pathogenic or non-pathogenic
b. their shape
c. by their staining reaction
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Algae, the most simple plant requires:
sunlight for energy production.
True fungi:
are saprophytes
The antibiotic penicillin is obtained from:
Candida albicans may cause:
Candida albicans may invade the mucous membranes of the:
vagina, throat, and mouth.
Histoplasmosis is a respiratory disease caused by:
pathogenic fungal spores
Protozoa are classified by their means of:
Protozoa are a group of organisms that:
are the most simple and primitive animals
Entamoeba histolytica causes:
amoebic dysentery
Entamoebe histolytica is difficult to treat because:
the pathogens form resistant cysts.
Amoeba move by means of:
Trichomonas vaginalis is:
an STD, a parasite, and pathogenic.
Pneumocystis carinii:
a. is the cause of an atypical plasma cell pneumonia
b. causes and opportunistic infection
c. in patients whose immune system are compromised is almost certainly fatal
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Organisms that get their nourishment from another but cause it no harm:
Parasites are living organisms which:
derive nourishment by causing harm to their host.
Trichinosis is a disease caused by:
eating insufficiently cooked pork
Chlamydias are:
easily tranmitted by sexual contact
a. are much smaller than the smallest bacteria
b. are transmitted by the bites of fleas, lice, ticks, and mites
c. can cause typhoid fever and Rocky Mtn spotted fever
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae:
can be bulbuous, coccoid, or filamentous in shape.
The mosquito can be directly responsible for:
Candida albicans is a parasite.

true or false?
Most bacteria prefer an acidic medium for growth.

true or false?
Lyme disease left untreated causes pseudorheumatoid arthritis.

true or false?
The most common organism implicated in urinary tract infections is staphylococci.

true or false?
The most basic precaution to prevent the spread of disease producing organisms is to practice good hand washing techniques.

true or false?
Some bacteria form resistant bodies called toxins.

true or false?
Depending on the environmental conditions some fungi may appear as yeasts or molds.

true or false?
If some fungi appear as yeasts or molds this condition is called symbiosis.

true or false?
Fungi are the scavengers of the microbes.

true or false?
Opportunistic pathogens are organisms that normally do not cause disease in healthy individuals.

true or false?
Noscomial infections are those infections that originate in a hospital environment.

true or false?
AIDS is a disease that:
suppresses the body's natural immune system.
The incubation period for AIDS is:
generally six months to two years, up to ten years.
The Elisa & Western Blot Procedure:
detects the presence of antibodies in a person who has been infected with HIV.
The spread of microorganisms by direct contact includes all of the following except:
a. touching an infected persons skin
b. touching contaminated clothing
c. coming in contact with respiratory secretions
d. handing blood for transfus
b. touching contaminated clothing
Carriers of infectious agents:
can spread their microorganisms to others who may become ill with the disease.
A disease carrier may be a person who:
a. has an unrecognized infection with no symptoms
b. has recovered from a disease but still harbors the pathogen
c. has no symptoms but harbors pathogenic organisms
d. all of the above
d. all the above
Factors that are significant inthe development of disease include:
a. the location of the invasion
b. virulence of the organism
c. the number of invaders
d. all the above
d. all the above
Fomites are:
inanimate objects that act as disease carriers.
One of the ways bacteria may be transmitted from one person to another is through direct contact. Examples of this method are:
contact with mucous membranes.
HIV can be acquired by:
a. anyone who uses IV drugs and shares needles
b. teenagers who practice unsafe sex
c. adults who have multiple partners
d. in utero or at birth
e. all the above
e. all the above
The bodies first line of defense include:
skin, mucous membranes, cilia
Colostrum provides ____ ____immunity.
passive natural
The purpose of being injected with antibodies from the blood of others is to:
produce an immediate but temporary immunity.
Microorganisms that invade the body are called:
Combination vaccines include:
a. BCG
b. DPH
c. MMR
d. SS
c. MMR
An immediate response to the penetratioin of bacteria through the first line of defense may be:
The counteract a sever allergic reaction the individual may receive:
AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

true or false?
The acid fast stain is helpful in diagnosing tuberculosis.

true or false?
Immunization is the process of increasing an individual's resistance to a particular infection by natural means.

true or false?
Autoimmunity is when an individual's immune system goes awry.

true or false?
Gloves must be worn at all times when handling all body fluid materials.

true or false?
From the time bacteria enter the body until the first symptoms appear is called the ____ period.
____ is an example of an autoimmune disorder.
Rheumatic fever
List four ways to inhibit the growth of bacteria in food.
A bacteria that can grow only in the absence of oxygen is called a(n):
obligate anaerobe
A bacteria that can only grow in the presence of oxygen is called a(n):
obligate aerobe
A physical process whereby molecules of gases, liquids, or solid particles spread or scatter themselves evenly through a medium.
The diffusion of water through a selective premeable membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
The movement of solutes and water across a semipermeable membrane, resulting from some mechanical force such as blood pressure or gravity.
A process in which molecules move across the cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.
active transport
Substances that maintain the required pH even in the face of contaminants or adversity.
The occurrence of more than one shape in a bacterial species.
Mycoplasma is said to be ____ because it does not have a typical cell wall and display a "fried egg" appearance.
Microscopic, one-celled animals. The lowest classified form of life in the animal kingdom.
List the correct arrangement of the modern classification scheme.
A branch of biology that deals with the classification of living organisms.
Only a single stain is added to the bacterial smear in ____ ____.
simple staining
More than one stain is applied to the bacterial cells during this type of staining.
differential stain
Infection that is restricted to one area of the body.
local infection
Infection that has spread to many parts of the body.
general infection
A class of protein composed almost entirely of immunoglobulins, the proteins that make antibodies.
gamma globulin
Protein substance such as gamma globulin or another serum with antibodies present that is injected to produce a passive immunity.
immune serum
Preparation made from suspension of living or dead pathogens or a solution of bacterial, viral, or pollen antigens, which can stimulate antibody formation when injected.
Which type of heat would you use to ensure that you killed all spores as well as bacteria?
steam under pressure (autoclave)
Arresting or stopping the growth or multiplication of bacteria; an agent that also stops bacterial growth.
10% solution is what parts?
1 part disinfectant
9 parts water
Freezing a produces a ____ effect on bacteria.
kills all microorganisms
Included in germicides are:
infrared rays, uv rays, and xrays
Antibiotics are classified as:
The recommended germicide for blood spills is:
household bleach
A chemical substance that destroys or inhibits bacterial growth is called:
The blockage of bacterial metabolism by an agent that mimics a nutrient needed by the bacteria.
competitive inhibition
Refers to biological experiments done in petri dishes or test tubes.
in vitro
Refers to laboratory experiments testing chemical agents in a living organism.
in vivo
What precautions must be observed in the storage of antibiotics?
expiration date
follow instructions
Most natural antibiotics are derived from ____.
Two of the most toxic antibiotics include ____ and ____.

What is meant by a bacterial count?
Estimated number of bacteria per mL.
What is the safest method of treating water from an unknown source?
Boil it for at least 20 minutes.
Prevention of the spread of airborne droplets is easily effected by:
covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing.
Pasteurization kills:
most bacteria.
Infection or disease not carried by the patient but that originated from within a hospital environment.
noscomial infection

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