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Anatomy2 lecture test 2


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Seminiferous tubules
very small/highly coiled structures that reach several hundred feet of tubing. Represents the site of spermatogenesis. Sperm cells with flagella start off as cells and use their flagella to move through the seminiferous tubules.
Interstitial Cells (AKA?)
(Leydig Cells)- cells between other cells that fill up blank area. Told by the anterior pituitary through ICSH-(interstitial cell stimulating hormone) to produce testosterone. cells that are between the seminiferous tubules which produce testosterone.
Meiosis (AKA?)
form of cell reproduction that is involved in the production of gametes (cells with 23 chromosomes). AKA - reductional division
Diploid Cells (AKA?)
(body cells/somatic cells).Two sets of 23 chromosomes (hapliod cells/gametes) making 46 chromosomes all come together to make a diploid cell.
Haploid Cells (AKA?)
(gametes) one set of 23 chromosomes that makes up a single sex cell.
What is reductional division also known as?
The creation of sperm cells in the seminiferous tubules.
rete testis
an intersection b/w seminiferous tubules and the epidiymus
a staging area divided into 3 different areas (head, body, tail). This is where the sperm cells mature and get their falgella.
How long do sperm cells remain in the epidiymus
They remain here until ejaculation and it becomes a highly crowded area. Cells that are not released eventually die.
ductus deferns/vas deferens
tube that conveys sperm cells back through the pelvic cavity
brings together reproductive function and urinary function.
membranous urethra
forms as a result of the prostatic uretha and ejaculatory duct.
prostatic urethra
comes out of the urinary gland. only carries urine
bulbourethral (cowpers gland)
merges w/ membranous urethra to form spongy or penile urethra. Releases a clear, viscous secretion known as pre-ejaculate
seminal vesicles
produce fluid rich in fructose, which is immediate source of energy for sperm cells.
prostate gland
secretes alkaline buffers. (or PH)
When does the hypothalamus start sending gonatropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)?
at the time of puberty
what tells the anterior pituitary to release gonadotropin?
what are two gonadotropins in the male reproductive system
follicle-stimulating hormone
interstitial cell stimulating hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone
the leading hormone in regard to supporting spermatogenesis
interstital cell stimulating hormone
stimulates the interstitial cells of testes which are b/w walls of seminiferous tubules. Produces/secretes testosterone.
the 5 things testosterone does
1. helps to complete spermatogenesis and the production of flagella.
2. provides secondary sexual characteristics
3. increase in somatic growth
4. increase in BMR
5. sex drive
which cell in the reproductive system is one of the largest cells in the body?
egg cells
male cells go through which type of meiosis?
female cells go through which type of meiosis?
oogenesis or spermatogenesis.
which happens in Meiosis I?
reduction division takes places, reducing the diploid # to the haploid #.
what happens in Meiosis II?
2 cells with 23 chromosomes divide, or make more copies of the cells. AKA "equational division"
a large # of very small cells that surround something.
the gonads within the female involved with gamete production and hormone production
the production of egg cells. starts with 1 diploid cell which one produces 1 egg cell.
meiosis in the female
production of haploid cells aka oocytes or eggs cells.
what is the primary source of progesterone/estrogens
uterine fallopian tubes
AKA ovaduct - represent direct communication b/w ovaries and the testes. represents major cites of fertilization. The walls of the fallopian tubes are comprised of cilitated columnar epithelium (mucosa).
fingerlike extensions that help to increase surface area near ovary (ciliated).
has 3 parts
1.) fundus - top most part
2.) body - middle
3.) cervix - bottome

sites of implantation of developing embryo/ site of the development of the actual embryo.
3 layers of the unterine wall
1. perimetrium
2. myometrium
3. endometrium
covering to wall of the uterus
middle layer compride of smooth muscle (thickest layer)
inner most layer of uterus. this is what the embryo burrow into.
what are the two layers of the endometrium?
stratum basale
stratum functionalis
ovarian cycle
changes that take place w/i the walls of the ovaries
uterine cycle
changes that take place w/i the walls of the uterus in preparation for plantation of embryo.
what are the 3 phases of the ovarian cycle?
follicular, ovulatory, luteal
follicular phase
1. takes places 1-10 days of cycle
2. where follicular growth and maturation of the oocyte processes begin
3. hormones in this phase include: GnRh, FSH, LH, ovarian estrogens
ovarian estrogens
levels increase of the first 10 days. ovarian estrogens that are being produced include: beta estradial (primary form of estrogen), estrone, and estriol.
5 effects of estrogen
1. increase in thickness of endometrium (layer of functionalis)
2. increase in vascularization
3. increase in formation of nurtritive gland
4. increase in receptors for other female hormones
5. increase in # receptors w/i brain such as serotonin.
male gonads
male gametes
sperm cell
the pouch of skin that holds the testes
cremaster muscle
muscle which covers the testis, function is to raise and lowers the scrotum in order to regulate the temperature of the testis and promote spermatogenesis
tunica vaginalis
a sheath, or serous membrane covering both sides and fron of the testis
tunica albuginea
The tunica albuginea is the tough fibrous covering of the testicles. It lies just deep to the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis.
inguinal canal
The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall which in men conveys the spermatic cord and in woman the round ligament. The inguinal canal is larger and more prominent in men.
cells located within the seminiferous tubules that produce sperm, is a diploid cell that divides to form more.
sustentacular cells (sertoli cells)
The Sertoli cell (also called sustentacular cell) is the 'nurse' cell of the testes. Its main function is nurturing the developing sperm cells during the process of spermatogenesis.
spermatic cord
The structure that secures the testicles within the scrotum.
corpora cavernosa penis
Chambers in the penis that fill with blood during an erection.
corpus spongiosum penis
A column of erectile tissue that runs the length of the penis and encloses the urethra, a spongy chamber in a man's penis which fills with blood when he is sexually excited, giving the organ the stiffness required for intercourse.
The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of sperm from the testicles and fluid from the prostate and other sex glands.
female gonads
famale gametes
egg cell
broad ligament
The broad ligament is a folded sheet of tissue that drapes over the uterus, fallopian tubes and the ovaries.
ovarian ligament
band of connective tissue that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus, a remnant of the gubernaculum
suspensory ligament
Suspensory ligament describes any ligament that supports a body part, especially an organ
germinal epithelium
cellular component covering surface of ovary, it is continuous with mesothelium covering mesovarium.
ovarian follicle
An ovarian follicle is a small sac (cyst) on the ovary. An egg matures inside of the follicle. When the egg is mature, the follicle bursts open and releases the egg.
egg cells
mature follicle (Graafian follicle)
A nearly mature egg or ovum, contained in a layer of cells, which ruptures when ovulation takes place.
release of egg cell
corpus luteum
"Yellow body". Structure formed in the ovary from the remaining cells of the follicle after ovulation. The corpus luteum produces the female sex hormone progesterone.
internal os of the cervical canal
the opening of the cervix inside the uterine cavity.
external os of the cervical canal
The ectocervix's opening
external genitalia
Sex organs on the outside of the body: penis, scrotum, and urethra in men; vulva, clitoris, and urethra in women
The external female genitalia, including the labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening.
The muscle and tissue between the vagina and the rectum
paraurethral (skene's) glands
located on upper wall of vagina, Location also known as the G-spot, is homologonous with prostate gland in male./
greater vestibular (bartholin's) gland
two glands located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina in women. They secrete mucus to provide lubrication, especially when the woman is sexually aroused, thus facilitating sexual intercourse.
average gestation period in humans
266 days or 8 days short of 9 months
3 stages of labor
1. Early labor, the longest part, the starting and ending of dilation
2. delivery
3. afterbirth, seperation of placenta
ovulatory phase
-during days 11-4
-release of oocyte
-day 14 is ovulation
-lutenizing hormone effects peak around day 14
-decrease pf estrogens after ovulation
luteal phase
-days 14-28
-longest phase
-formation of corpus luteum
- increasing effects of lutenizing hormone and progesterone
-decrease secretion of ovarian hormones
lutenizing hormone
leads to the formation and yellowing of corpus luteum.
the period of pregnancy, progesterone is important to maintaining conditions for pregnancy.
egg cell prior to fetilization, most capable point of being fertilized
-comprised of 3 major parts (trophoblasts,innercell mass, blastocele)
- fingerlike projections (helps attatch trophoblasts with the endometrium of the uterus) that burrow into the endometrial lining of the inner uterus.
-Is the first part to make contact with the uterus' endometrium.
- Helps with the formation of the placenta.
-hCG is only released by the cells of the trophoblasts.
inner cell mass
-clustering of cells, outer core/leading edge of a blastocyst
- gives rise to the body of the fetus-
fluid-filled cavity inside of a blasocyst.
hCG ( human chorionic gonadotropin)
only cells of the trophoblasts release/produce this hormone. its target cells are in the corpus luteum.
-membranous sac that encloses the fetus
-produces amnionic fluid
amnionic fluid
provides: Temp regulation, freedom of movement, and excretion/elimination of wastes.
-fetal part of placcenta that grows from the trophoblasts.
-grows extensions called chorionic villi which are filled with fetal blood vessels.
- delivers nutrients to the fetus
- where all respiration occurs
-excretion of metabolic waste products are deported to mothers organs.
-provides encronine function
Endocrine function of the placenta (hormones that it produces)
1. progesterone/estrogens
2. human chorionic thyrotropin (stimulates the thyroid gland)
3. placental lactogen (milk production by the placenta).
4. relaxin (produced in later stages of pregnancy, prior to pregnancy, helps with stretch.)
formation of gastrula. These cells begin to differentiate into 3 embryonic tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm,ectoderm.
REAL DEFINITION:The formation and development of the organs of living things.

STAMATIS DEFINITION: the differentiation between ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
1. outermost
2. all structures derived from nervous tissue/sense organs
3. is in the epidermis/epidermal derivities (hair, nails, errector pili)
4. cornea and lens
5. external/internal ear
6. epithelial membranes of mouth/nose/anus.
1. thickest of 3 layers, middle layer
2. all skeletal muscle
3. most smooth muscle
4. some cardiac muscle
5. all connective tissues, such as, cartilage/bone/ ligaments/ tendons/dermis/and others
6. major components of vascular system: blood, marrow of bone cavities/lymphatic tissue.
7. Middle ear (ossicles)
1.innermost layer
2. epithelial membranes of most of digestive tract/accessory structures
3. apithelial membranes of most of respiratory tract/reproductive tract
4. epitheliam membranes of urinary bladder and urethra
5. epithelium of auditory tubes
sex chromoses
genetic structures of cells, there are 46 chromoses
44 of the 46 chromosomes, carry info for body anatomy that are not gender differentiating
the functional units of hereditary, instructions manuals for protein synthesis. Genes are a length of DNA that has codes for making protein
the type of genes we inherit, the LETTERS ex) Bb heterozygous
the characteristics expressed from the genotype. ex) brown eyes, thich hair, anermia. THE TYPE OF TRAIT
homologous chromosomes
same, but not neccessarily identical, they code for the same trait, or inherited characteristic.
two genes that code for the same trait, but are different variations
incomplete dominance results in?
a third phenotype

Ex) red flower, white flower= pink
dominant allele
always express their information to a degree

ex) B - brown eyes
recessive alleles
only express genes in presence of another recessive gene

ex) b blue eyes

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