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science concepts- midterm


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an element is composed of a single kind of atom, a compound is two or more elements
clastic rock/ organic rock/ chemical rock
the three types of sedimentary rocks;
clastic rock- forms when rock fragments are squeezed together
organic rock- forms where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers
chemical rocks- forms when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize
cleavage/fracture/luster/Mohs hardness scale/streak/color
all properties of minerals
composite volcano/shield volcano/cinder cone volcano
all formed by lava;
composite- tall, cone-shaped, mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash
cinder cone- a steep, cone-shaped mountain
shield volcanoes- a wide, gently sloping mountain
constructive forces/destructive forces
both change the Earth's surface;
constructive- shape the surface by building up mountains
destructive- slowly wear away mountains and, eventually, every other feature on the surface
convergent/divergent/transform boundary
convergent- where two plates come together
divergent- where two plates move apart
transform- where two plates slip passt each other
Mercalli scale/ Richter scale/ Moment magnitude scale
Mercalli- rates earthquakes according to their intensity, 12 steps
Richter- rating of size of seismic waves
moment magnitude- rates by total energy released by the earthquake
lava/magma/sill/dike/volcanic neck/batholith
lava- magma that reaches the surface
magma- hot, molten material
volcanic necks, dikes, and sills are all formed by magma
sill- a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock
dike- a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers
volcanic neck- a deposit of hardened magma in a volcanoes pipe
batholith- a mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust
igneous/metamorphic/sedimentary rock
the three major groups of rocks;
igneous- forms from the cooling of molten rock
sedimentary rock- forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
metamorphic- forms when existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
extrusive/intrusive rock
extrusive- igneous rocks formed from lava that erupted on Earth's surface
intrusive- igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath Earth's surface
inner core/outer core/mantle/crust
mantle- layere of hot rock
crust- layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin
outer core- a layer of molten material that surrounds the inner core
inner core- a dense ball of solid metal
lithosphere- a rigid layer formed by the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
asthenosphere- the soft layer below the lithosphere
footwall/hanging wall/normal fault/reverse fault
hanging wall- the half of the fault that lies above above
footwall- the halfof the fault that lies below
normal fault- fault is at an angle, so one block lies above and one below
reverse fault- blocks move in opposite direction as normal fault
fault-block mountain/island arc
fault- block mountain- when normal faults uplift uplift a block of rock
island arc- a string of islands formed by theh volcanoes along a deep ocean trench

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