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Geosystems Minerals/Rock Cycle Test


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Weathering produces what?
1. clasts
2. colloids
3. ions
What mechanism turns magma into igneous rock?
1. volcanism
2. crystallization
What causes erosion?
1. wind
2. water
3. waves
4. ice
How does lithification occur?
1. compaction
2. cementation
What mechanisms turn igneous rock into sedimentary rocks (order matters)?
1. weathering
2. erosion
3. sediment deposition
3. lithification
What causes metamorphasis?
1. heat
2. pressure
3. chemically active fluids
What factors determine which mineral is formed?
1. temperature
2. pressure
What's the space between clasts called?
intersitial space
Three axes, all same size, 2 in same plane, all perp.
3 axes. 2 same length. 2 same plane. all perp.
3 axes. none same length. 2 same plane. all perp.
3 axes. 2 same plane and perp. none same size. 3rd axis not perp.
3 axes. 2 same plane. none same size. none perp.
4 axes. 3 same plane. 3 same length. 4th perp.
What's the difference between minerals and mineralloids?
Minerals have a specific composition and chracteristic crystalline structure.
What's the criteria for an ionic substitution?
same size, same charge.
What's the difference in identifying and classifying crystals.
structure used to classify.

properties used to identify.
What's the first and second most abundant mineral group?
silicates and oxides.
What's the net charge on a silicate?
How do the outer oxygens in silicates reach stability?
1. ionic or covalent vonding with other cations.
2. bonding with 2 tetrahedrons at once.
What are the two types of isolated tetrahedra?
1. olivine group.
2. garnet group.
What are the single chained tetrahedra called?
Where are pyroxene usually found?
ocean crust and mantle.
What't the most important pyroxene?
What the double chained tetrahedra called?
What's the most common amphibole?
What are the sheets of tetrahedra called?
clays and micas.
Name a sheet tetrahedron.
muscovite or biotite
What are common forms of quartz?
agate, flint, jasper
What is the most common type of silicate?
What's coupled substitution and where is it found?
1. when there are different ranges of two different ions.
2. feldspars.
Name the two potassium feldspars and the important characteristic of each.
1. microcline (highly ordered)
2. orthoclase (partially ordered)
Name the two extremes of the plagioclas feldspars?
1. sodium feldspar- albite
2. calcium feldspar- anorthite
Name the three important carbonate minerals.
1. calcite
2. aragonite
3. dolomite
What do the carbonates produce?
limestone and dolostone
What is an important phosphate?
What is an important sulfate?
Name the characteristics of sulfides.
1. ore mineral
2. metallic luster
3. high specific gravity aka heavy
Name three common sulfides.
1. pyrite
2. galena
3. chalcopyrite
Name two common oxides.
1. magnetite
2. hematite

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