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exercise 6


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cartilage; fibrocartilage
matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fiber predominate
cartilage; hyaline description
amrphous but firm matrix; cllagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblast produce the matrix and when mature lie in the lacune
characteristics of connective tissue
* vascular (except cartilage) * composed of many types of cells * ret deal of noncellular, nonliving matrix b/t the cells of CT
characteristics that distinguih epithelial tissue:
1. polarity 2. cellularity and specialized contacts: cells fit closely together to form membranes and are bound by specialized junctions 3. ssuported by connective tissue 4. avascularity 5. quick regeneration
Connective tissue
found in all parts of body ; most abundant and widely distributed of tissue types
connective tissue proper: loose CT, areolar description
gel-like matrix w/ all 3 fiber ypes; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells
CTP: dense ct, dense irregular description
primarily irregularly arrange collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast
CTP: dense ct, dense irregular function
able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structureal strength
CTP: dense CT, dense regular
attaches mmuscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands gret tensile stress when pulling fore is applied in one direction
CTP: dense CT, dense regular description
primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastin fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast
CTP: dense CT, dense regular, location
tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses
CTP: loose cr, adipose description
matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed ADipocyes, or gat cells have nucleus pushed to the side b large fat droplet
CTP: loose ct, adipose function
provides reserve fuel; inulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs
CTP: loose ct, adipose location
under skin; around kindneys and eyeballs w/in abdomen; in breasts
CTP: loose CT, areolar location
widely distrubted under epithelia of body; forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries
CTP: loose ct, reticular
network of reticular fibers ina typical loose ground substance; reticular cels lie on the network
CTP: loose ct, reticular function
fibers form a softinternal skeleton (stroma) that suports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages
CTP: loose CT, reticular location
lymphoid organs
CTP: loose CT; areolar function
wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagoctize bactera; plays important role in iflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid
elastic cartilage description
similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix
elastic cartilage function
mainains the shape f a strucutre while allowing great fflexibilty
elastic cartilage location
supports the external ear; epiglottis
endocrine glands
lose duct as develop; secrete hormones directly into blood or lymphatic vessels
epithelial tissue
covers external surfaces, lines cavities ad tubules, generally marks off our "insides" from our outsides
exocrine glands
empty secrection onto the epithelial surface; goblet cells
extracellular matrix
nonliving material b/t cells; produced by cells; then extruded; responsible for the strength associated w/ ct; the more matrix, the more strength; more cells, less strenth
Fibers of matrix
provide support: collagen (white); most abundant elastic (yellow) reticular (fine collagen)
fibrocartilage function
tensile strength with the ability to absorb compresie shock
fibrocartilage location
intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint
function of connective tissue
protect, support, bind toether other tissues of the obdy
functions of epithelial tissue
protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretions, sensory reception
goblet cells
secrete mucus
ground substance
composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteo glycans. could be ligquid, semisolid, gel-like, or hard;
hematopoietic tissue
forms blood; replenishes the body's supply of red blood cells.
hyaline cartilage function
supports and reinforces; has resilien cushioning properties; resists compressive stress
hyaline cartilage location
forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx
mast cll
releases histamine that makes capillaries more permeable during inflammatory reaction
pseudostratified columnar epithelium function
secretion, particlarly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
pseudostratified columnar epithelium location
nonciliated type in males' sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract
pseudostratified epithelia
simple columnar epithelia but cells vary in height and nuclei lie at dif levels so it looks like it is stratified; often ciliated
simple columnar epithelium
absorbtion; secretion of muucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated ype propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action.
simple cuboidle epithelium location
kidney tubules; duct and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
simple cuoidal epithelium function
secretion and absorbtion
simple squamous epithelium function
allows passae of materials by difusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
simple squamous epithelium location
kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavitiy
stratified columnar
rare in the body; small amount in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands
stratified columnar function
protection; secretion
stratified cuboidal function
stratified cuboidal location
largest ducts f sweat glands, marrary glands, and salivary gands
stratified squamous epithelium function
protects underlyng tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
stratified squamous epithelium location
nonkeratinized tpe forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane
transitional epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium formed of rounded cells that can slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched- ony in urinary system- flattened when full and rounded when empty
Transitional epithelium function
stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urin
transitional epithelium location
lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra
2 components of matrix?
ground substance and fibers.
4 primary tissue types?
epithelium, connective, nervous, muscle.
4 types of connective tissue (all have large amounts of matrix)?
connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood.
What does adipose tissue do?
It provides insulation for the body tissues and a source of stored food.
What is areolar connective tissue?
A soft packaging material which cushions and protects body organs; all other types of CT are variations of areolar; has all 3 fiber types.
What does basal membrane (Basal lamina) do?
Epithelial tissues are attached to the adhesive material secereted partly by the basal lamina and partly by the reticular lamina.
What is a bone?
Description: hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. funcion: bone support and protect (by enclosing) provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones.

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