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Fitness Foundations 2


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Energy, tissue growth and repair, insulation, transportation, hydration -Carbs -Proteins -Lipids -Water *Need large amounts
Regulate chemical reactions, assist healthy cellular function -Vitamins -Minerals *Need minimal amounts
How many calories are there of carbohydrates per gram?
4 calories per gram
What are the two different forms of Carbohydrates?
Simple CHO: glucose Complex CHO: starch, fiber
What two main forms are carbohydrates stored as in the body?
-Glucose -Glycogen
Use of CHO
-Fuel (Brain Food) -Chemical building blocks -Cell repair
What is excess CHO stored as?
Recommended Intake of Carbs
CHO total *45-65% total caloric intake *225-325g in a 2000cal diet
Recommended intake of fiber?
-Men: 38g -Women: 25g
Amount of calories per gram in protein
4 calories per gram
Complete Protein
Animal Products -Eggs -Milk -Meat
Incomplete Protein
Missing one or more amino acid -Grains -Nuts
What are two types of amino acids?
Essential and Non-Essential
Uses of Repair
-Build/repair tissue -Enzymes -Transportation
Recommended intake of protein
10-12% of caloric intake Do not want to exceed 20% of total caloric intake
Amount of calories per gram for lipids
9 calories per gram
Saturated Fat
Raise LDL, Lower HDL Animal Products and Oils
Unsaturated Fat
Raise HDL, Lower LDL Missing one or more hydrogen bonds (Olive oil, peanuts, fish,soybeans)
Low Density Lipoproteins
-LDL promotes plaque build up in blood vessels -Carries Cholesterol in blood stream
High Density Lipoproteins
Carries excess cholesterol to the liver for processing and removal
Use of Fats
-Insulation -Protection -Transport -Satiety
Too much fat causes:
-Increased cholesterol -blood vessel wall damage -Heart Disease
Recommended Fat intake:
<30% total calories
How many calories per gram does alcohol contain?
7 calories per gram
What percentage of the body is water?
around 60% -At a 4% loss concentration, decision making, and ability to carry out physical work is affected
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A,D,E,K Stored in body fat
Fat Insoluble
C, B Vitamins
Roles of Minerals
-Fluid Regulation -Muscular contraction -Nerve impulse conduction
Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride
Free Radical
An unpaired electron that can damage cells and mutate genes if produced at a rate the body can\'t handle
Sources of free radicals
-metabolism -sunlight -exercise -pollution
Post resistance training meal
High CHO with protein and some fat within an hour
Body Composition
Ratio of muscle mass to fat mass
Recommended essential fat for men and for women
Men: 3-5% Women: 8-12%
Who is more likely to be obese men or women?
Problems with BMI
-Not always accurate for athletes, muscular -May identify a healthy BMI in individuals with elevated body fat levels
Desirable range of body fat for women 20-39
Desirable range of body fat for men 20-39
What percentage of Americans are overweight or obese?
More than 60%
Improves performance
Performance declines
3 main hormones in stress response
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol
automatic physical response to any physical stimulus that requires you to adjust/change
Physical stress responses
-sweat -increased heart rate -blood flow re-directed -respiration increases -energy is made available
What system controls hormonal response to stress?
Endocrine system
Nervous System role in stress response
sympathetic nervous system triggers energy output in crisis
BMI Equation
BMI= weight(lb)x703/height(in)^2 (squared)
Recommended body weight according to desired body fat equation

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