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Botany 2.5


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Four principles of inheritance
-Transmitted by genes (occur in pairs called alleles). -Principle od dominance (one allele is usually dominant) -Principle of segregation (each gamete carries only 1 of 2 allels) -principle of independent assortment (each allele is inhereted independent of other genes -- though some DO move together if they are near to eahc other).
Many traits controlled by many related genes. Both alleles contribute to the phenotype (hazel eyes).
incomplete dominance
a mix of genes
a change in genetic structure of a population over time.
Developed modern theory of evolution
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace
Natural selection can be considered ___; developed the saying ____.
Teleological; survival of the fitest.
Sexual selection
decides which genes will be passed on based on attraction.
Jean Baptiste de Lamark
Organisms could pass traits acquired during lifetime to offspring.
Epigenetics (non-Mendelian inheritance)
changes in phenotype or "gene expression" caused by mechanisms other than changes in the sequence of bases in DNA. "Hidden genes".
Epigenetic examples
-cell differntiation during development or and organism -Grandsons ofmen who suffered famine during childhood wnet through puberty earlier and lived longer lives.
4 premises of evolution
-overproduction (lots of offspring). -variation (between individuals-genetically) -competition for resources (not enough to go around) -Survival of the fittest (most adapted individuals will reproduce).
Evolution occurs in ___ not ___.
Organisms in a population collectively contain a ____
gene pool
4 things that cause evolution in a population:
1.point mutation 2.sexual reproduction 3. chromosome re-arrangement 4.chromosome duplication
Hardy-Weinberg Law of Genetic Equilibrium (Evolution will not occur if...)
1. Random mating 2. No mutations 3. No migration 4. No selection
Evolution can lead to ___
Needed in large quantities. Carbs, Fats and oils, Proteins and Amino Acids
Needed i small quantities Vitamins and minerals
Large complex molecules (polymers) made of amino acids
Protein functions (4)
enzymes, membrane transport, synthesis, and break down of all molecules.
Types of protein (4)
hormones, structural, contractile and defensive.

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