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CLEP U.S. History I


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Fled James and Laud: wanted religious utopia. (Saw themselves as last bastion of pure Christianity) Fearful of outsiders (incl. Pilgrims and Catholics); intolerant and isolated. NOT Pacifistic: English Civil War 1641 - 1660 and The Pequot War 1675 - 1676
New England Colonists
Life Expectance: 70 Men; 62 Women (previously skewed by including infants) Average family: 4 - 6 children. Little slavery (no need); Isolated Puritan communities. Climate and geography supported settlement by townships.
Third Amendment
Prohibits illegal quartering of troops in private homes
Article II Constitution
Deals w/Congress
Writ of Habeus corpus
Authorities must present evidence w/i 48 hours. Only Congress can suspend (President as a wartime act) Lincoln: Tennessee and Maryland
Dutch Colonizers
Fought with Natives; exploitive fur trade. Bloody war w/Algonquins 1643. They were small in #: recruited other nationalities to settle. New Netherland = diverse = infighting. Patroon System and climate harsh: few takers
North American Natives
Diversified economies (except Great Plains: hunters only) Oral traditions; nature sacred. Went to war over territory (some tribes more warlike than others)
Spanish Colonizers
Ideal colonial: young unmarried male seeking riches and return to Spain. 16th Century: 1500 conquistadors / year. Exploited natives; then African slaves (Charles V & Las Casas). Established large plantations: adeletandos. Introduced horses.
First Amendment
Free speech; religion; Right to Assemble and petition
Sixth Amendment
Deals w/Rights of the Accused (speedy trial). Re-enforces DOI. Reflects fears of Anti-Federalists
Article I; Sec.2: must start in the House. Sec.3: moves to Senate (presided over by Chief Justice). If guilty: removed. 1867: Andrew Johnson escaped removal by one vote. Nixon: neither impeached nor removed. Clinton: impeached: not removed.
XYZ Affair
1796 President John Adams. French were seizing U.S. ships and cargo. 'X,Y&Z' (anonymous sources) told Adams that French PM Talleyrand would accept a 250K bribe / 12 million $ interest-free loan to 'negotiate' the issues'. Adams leaked it to the press who ran with it. Adams considered it his greatest accomplishment. Saved U.S. honor.
Jay Treaty
John Jay: appointed by G. Washington in 1794 as Special Ambassador to G.B. Tried to open up West Indian trade and stop impressment but only succeeded in removing English troops from American soil.
Missouri Compromise
1819-1820. Dealt w/ slavery & its expansion (secession only slightly)
The Great Compromise
Authored by Roger Sherman: CT
Resulted in Bi-cameral legislature. (Virginia AND New Jersey Plans) At Philadelphia Convention. Saved the new government.
Patrick Henry
Believed: Supreme Court = too powerful and no rights in writing. Result: Bill of Rights. Opposed Electoral College. Feared country too large for one form of republican government.
Washington D.C.
Proposed as seat of government in 1790
Nullification Controversy
RE: South Carolina 1831 - 32
Royal Colonies
New York; New Hampshire; Delaware: all directly under Crown
Kansas-Nebraska Acts
Touched on sesession. More slavery and its expansion
Mason-Dixon Line
Touched on sesession. More on slavery and its expansion
Treaty of Ghent
Ended War of 1812 but did not prevent the Battle of New Orleans 2 weeks later.
Battle of New Orleans
American victory in War of 1812 after Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1815. 2000 British killed / 13 Americans
American invasion of Canada
Part of War of 1812: ended in American defeat
Battle of Lake Eerie
Part of War of 1812: major American Naval victory
British burn Washington
1814 (during War of 1812)
Monroe Doctrine
1823 Foreign Policy
1)U.S. to remain neutral in the face of European Wars
2)No more colonization of Western Hemisphere
3)Leave independent countries of N and S. America alone.
England supported: avoided war w/ Spain over their deteriorating empire
Washington's Farewell Address
America should avoid future wars. (1797)
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 dealt with rights of Federal Government over States
Dred Scott
Slavery decision: 1857 Roger Taney
Marbury v. Madison
1803 Established power of judicial review
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1832. Chief Justice John Marshall writing for majority: tribe NOT a 'nation w/i a nation' but cannot be removed from their lands. (They eventually were: Trail of Tears) President Jackson scoffed at the decision: re-enforced that the Executive Branch had to enforce the decisions of the Supreme Court for them to have any merit.
Commercial Market Farming
One major cash-crop per year
After 1812, prices rose, tempting farmers. Process too complex: short-term debt. Farmers became pawns of middlemen.
2nd Bank of U.S.
Nicholas Biddle at odds w/President Jackson
1830 - 40's Reforms
Temperance (males drank ~.5 pints per day).
Religious: The Second Great Awakening (revivalism)
Seneca Falls Convention 1848: Women's Rights and educational reforms.
NOT unionization: un-American; anti-individualistic; 'foreign input'.
Labor Reforms
Not in 1800's: Unions seen as 'foreign' and anti-American
Andrew Johnson
Most influential 19th century President and most influential since G. Washington.
Use of Veto as offensive political weapon
Andrew Johnson (Maysville Veto; Second Bank of U.S. Veto)
"The Kitchen Cabinet"
advisors loyal to him appointed by Andrew Johnson to wrest control away from Congress and his Party
Appointed Civil Servants to Federal Government
Andrew Johnson
Created 'spoil system' (cronyism; favoritism)
Andrew Johnson
First manipulation of public opinion by a President
Andrew Johnson (as w/ Nicholas Biddle and the 2nd U.S. Bank struggle)
Johnson's Bank War
Believed the Bank too pro-East and pro-business under Biddle. Refused to re-charter: Grounds: unconstitutional and an illegal monopoly. Used public opinion: Bank's foreign creditors could influence American foreign policy; the Bank catered to the wealthy and raised the taxes of the working man and the farmer.
The 'Sambo Personality'
Stanley Elkins: 1961. "Slavery" Likened American slavery to Nazi concentration camps; broke Blacks' personalities and minds.
Herbert Aptheker
Marxist: viewed slaves as heroic rebels
George Fitzhugh
1850's Southern champion of slavery. Viewed it as 'positive good': all great empires relied on slaves.
"Cannibals All": black slaves better off than Northern factory workers.
Blacks inately inferior.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Published 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' in 1851-52
Eugene Genovese
Contemporary historian. "Roll Jordan, Roll". Rebutts the 'Sambo theory'.
American Colonization Society
Benjamin Lundy: tried to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
Leading white abolitionist (immediate, uncompensated abolition of slavery)
No strong stance: wanted political resolution of slavery issues
Henry Clay; Stephen Douglas
Lincoln's primary issue: Election of 1860
Keeping the nation united. He never advocated the extreme abolitionists who did not care if the South seceded.
John Brown
1859: advocated violence to end slavery
Nat Turner Rebellion
1831: bloodiest slave uprising. 55 whites killed by 15 slaves in Virginia
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854: advocated popular sovereignty to decide the issues of slavery in these territories. (to help the presidential aspirations of Stephen Douglas)
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Headed Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. Militant expression of women's rights.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1858: over the Senate seat in Illinois
Homestead Act
1865 - 1900 ~4 million went West. Most failed and returned. Cause: 160 acres not big enough; water and climate problems; inexperienced farmers.
Those who succeeded thanked the Republican Party.
Fugitive Slave Law
also: The Compromise of 1850. Northeners outraged at being legally required to return runaways. (had gained victories in same agreement re: California free and no more slave auctions in D.C.)
Importation of African Slaves
Ended in 1808
Gag Rule
Congressional abolition petitions were tabled w/o discussion.
Wilmot Proviso
Concerns about Utah and New Mexico (slavery) at end of Mexican-American War.
Dred Scott Case
Taney Court: 1857. A Black man sued for freedom on the grounds of his current (northern) inhabitance. Denied basis: Blacks were/could not become citizens. Taney also ruled the Missouri Compromise and all other laws prohibiting slavery were unconstitutional under the 'due process clause' of the Fifth Amendment regarding property.
Election of 1860
4 sectional presidential candidates.
Lincoln: Republican: 40% popular vote; carried college
Breckenridge: Southern Democrat: 18% popular
Stephen Douglas: Northern Democrats: 30% popular vote
John Bell: Constitutional Union Party: 13% popular vote.
Lincoln: seen as minority president w/o national mandate and representing only the North's interests
Emancipation Proclamation
January 1863
Only freed slaves in the States in which Lincoln had no control (the south). It did not mention those in Tennesee or Maryland.
Slavery finally ended: 1865: 13th Amendment
13th Amendment
1865: ended slavery
Confederate Government
Resembled Articles of Confederation from 1784 - 88.
Relied on friendly co-operation: states rights supreme.
State-Centered Federalism
The Confederacy and the Articles of Confederation
Black Civil War Soldiers
Lincoln reluctant. Agreed late (1863) w/ Mass 54th. ~185K segregated troops saw limited, but distinguished, action.
Lincolns war powers
Congress was on leave for the first four months: Lincoln was a virtual dictator by necessity.
Election of 1824
No candidate received a clear college majority. Jackson won popular (43%) but the House still chose John Quincy Adams. Jackson cried 'foul' when he discovered that Henry Clay - a V.P. candidate had swung his support to Adams and had been named his Secretary of State.
Radical Republicans' promises to ex-slaves
40 acres and a mule: from the divided land of plantation owners. Never materialized. Radicals did establish free public schools for Blacks and give them the vote and tried to protect them from the KKK and the White Camelia.
North determined to make South pay. Most ex-slaves became sharecroppers.
The Sellout of 1876
Republican Rutherford Hayes tied w/ Democrat Tilden in the college. When fraud claimed, Hayes met w/ southern Representatives and traded their votes for his promise to withdraw Union troops and end Reconstruction. Gave South permission to terrorize and oppress ex-slaves.
The Albany Plan
Author: Ben Franklin. 1754 plan for colonial unity. Rejected by 1754 Congress. Franklin drew the segmented snake cartoon in support of his plan.
The Know-Nothing Party
Grew out of the Order of the Star Spangled Banner. Based on fear and dislike of Catholics and immigrants. Strongest in urban and coastal areas. 1855: 2nd largest party / by 1860: no longer a faction. Why? Poor leadership; narrow focus; larger issues (slavery)
The Free Soil Party
Focused on stopping the spread of slavery in Western territories.
The Republican Party (at its inception)
wanted to abolish slavery
The Whig Party
a mainstream party opposed to the beliefs of the Know-Nothings. This party was destroyed by more radical ones.
The Populist Party
1890's: formed by farmers seeking to redress economic concerns ignored by the mainstream parties.
Aaron Burr
removed as V.P: 1804
defeated in NY for Governor
conspired w/Spain to ransom President Jefferson for S.W. territories (for his own control)
Tried and acquitted: Chief Justice John Marshall (need for 2 eyewitnesses)
Marshall used incident to embarass Jefferson in 1807
Virginia Plan
Proposition for legislature based solely on population
co-author: James Madison
New Jersey Plan
Proposition for legislature granting each state equal # of votes.
Lewis & Clark
Territory purchased from Napoleon by Jefferson in 1803 (he really only wanted trading rights to the Mississippi) Began 1804 - reached Pacific 1806
Election of 1800
Federalists: Adams and Pickney
Democratic-Republicans: Jefferson and Burr
No majority of Electoral College; ballots did not specify position of candidate
Burr tried to steal tie; Congress voted 37 times; finally chose Jefferson on Hamilton's recommendation
Result: 12th Constitutional Amendment
Economic policy of British Empire for North America: 17th and 18th centuries. First proposed: 1590's: Richard Haklyt
Colonies forbidden to trade (except w/Britain); discouraged manufacturing: only role was supply of raw materials
Compact / Contract Colony: almost completely independent of British rule until Revolution
James Madison
Author: Bill of Rights
Co-author: Virginia Plan
Supported: strong presidency and Supreme Court.
Federalist Papers 'Publius' (w/ Hamilton and Jay: on a par w/DOI and Constitution) During NY ratification Constitution: unique because: expansive freedoms AND energetic government. Threat: single interest group. Counter: large territory and diverse population.
Proprietory Colony: 1632: Purchased by Lord Baltimore as refuge for persecuted English Catholics. Never served purpose. Settlers at odds with Baltimore family authority
Military turning point of Revolution; victory persuaded France to aid.
Gates over Burgoyne in New York
Compromise of 1850
Only debate where all were present: Henry Clay; Stephen Douglas; Jefferson Davis; Salmon Chase; William Seward and John C. Calhoun. Key Issue: States' Right to Secession. Secondary:
slavery & expansion into New Mexico and California.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senatoro prior to the Civil War. Outspoken supporter of Southern issues / slavery / State's Rights
Daniel Webster
Opposed secession
Henry Clay
Ardent Constitutionalist
Boston Massacre
Relatively minor: dock workers and British troops; 7 Bostonians killed. Major propaganda
Order of Events:
Begin: Townshend Acts
Townshend Acts: 1767
Boston Massacre: 1770
Boston Tea Party: 1773
1st Continental Congress: 1774
Intolerable Acts: 1774
Battles: Lexington / Concord: 1775
James Otis
Mass. lawyer. 1761: opposed general search warrants (Writs of Assistance) Lost case but advanced theory of appealable law. (? dementia later in life)
Writs of Assistance
Purpose: Control smuggling and prohibit colonies from trade w/France during Seven Years War. Troops could ransack private homes for evidence. James Otis opposed
Colonial Elections
Suffrage: only white male Protestant property owners (those w/large stake in societal well-being) Annual elections: lower legislatures. Active local & county governments: Bi-cameral legislatures
Wars to control North America
Between England and France
First 3: inconclusive
King William's: 1690 - 97
Queen Anne's: 1702 - 13
King George's: 1744 - 48
England vanquished (& Canada seded) in 1763 after Seven Years War (1756 - 63)Fought to control Ohio Territory. Only one to begin in America and spread to Europe.
South Carolina
Black / White Ratio = 20 / 1
(others: 12 - 15% Black) Why? Harsh conditions of rice growing and fear of malaria = no indentured labor willing
Puritan Wars
1675 - 1676: over white encroachment on Natives' lands. Metacomet (King Philip) organized Wampanoags (and other NE tribes) to drive out English. Indian losses: 40% (essentially wiped out). Ended Native resistance to white settlement of NE.
"Order of the Star Spangled Banner"
The organization from which grew the Know-Nothing Party
Prince Henry of Portugal
Developed new navigational tools and improved shipbuilding techniques = allowed for transoceanic exploration. Compass and improved astrolabes.
Roger Williams
Established RI as a charter colony in 1644 after being exiled from Mass Bay by Puritan leaders. Why: advocating religious tolerance; political leaders should have no say in religion; English should pay Natives for land; government rests on the consent of the governed.
Anne Hutchinson
Exiled from Mass Bay. Why? Advocated that religion should be based on direct intuition of God, not through religious leaders.
Middle Colonies
New York; Delaware; Pennsylvania; New Jersey
French Colonizers
Mostly confined: north of Montreal to mouth of St. Lawrence River. New France: diversified. Fur trade did not require permanent settlements: helped w/Native relations.
Six Nations
Indian tribes: never allied w/French
Middle Passage
Portion of slave route (from Africa to the Americas) during which 13-33% of slaves died.
Bozeman Pass
Lewis & Clark crossed Rockies here.
Northwest Passage
Sought by Henry Hudson in 1609
National Road
Built between Maryland and Illinois between 1806 and 1852
Gold seekers
Crossed through Isthmus of Panama during 1849 Gold Rush
John Winthrop
Puritan Governor: Mass Bay. Opposed religious tolerance. Exiled Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson
William Penn
Established religious tolerance in Pennsylvania
Religious tolerance in Rhode Island
Roger Williams
Religious tolerance in Maryland
Lord Baltimore (Catholics)
Religious tolerance in Virginia
Thomas Jefferson (late) he authored the Virginia State for Religious Tolerance in 1786
Wool Act
1699: Early British law to curtail American manufacturing
Intolerable Acts
1774. Included closing Boston Harbor. In response to the Boston Tea Party (1773)
Order of tension-producing events:
Beginning w/Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre: 1770
Committee of Correspondance: 1772
Gaspee Affair: 1772
Boston Tea Party: 1773
Continental Congress: 1774
Nathaniel Greene
Commanded American troops in the South (Revolutionary War)
1787 Constitutional Convention
Held in Philadelphia
Alexander Hamilton's report on Public Credit
1790. Proposed that the Federal Government should assume all Revolution War debt (both that of States and that of the Confederation)
Alexander Hamilton
Advocated National Bank
Protective tariff
Bounties to encourage manufacturing
Thomas Jefferson
Reduced Federal budget via military cuts. Opposed National Bank and assumption of debt, but did not change.
Albert Gallatin
Secretary of Treasurer under Jefferson: tried to pay off National Debt quickly
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819: Gave us East and West Florida in exchange for the abandonment of 5 million dollars worth of American claims against Spain
Purchased in 1803 from France
Obtained independence from Mexico in 1836. Statehood in 1845
49th Parallel
Border between Oregon and Canada. Accepted by U.S. and British in 1846
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Gave us California in 1848
Report on Manufactures
Alexander Hamilton 1791: gave bonuses to new industries
American System
Henry Clay: included protective tariffs; 2nd Bank of U.S. and federally funded internal improvements
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments to Constitution. Proposed 1789. Ratified 1791.
10th Constitutional Amendment
Reserves all powers to States except those specifically witheld and those specifically delegated to the Federal Government
Constitutional Amendments 1-9
Part (w/#10) of Bill of Rights. They limit Congress; forbidding the encroachment of certain basic rights (speech, assembly, petition, etc.)
Key difference / issue between North and South at the time of Civil War
Generally accepted now as slavery.
Jacksonian Era
Rhetorical egalitarianism: "Jacksonian Democracy". (no significant increase in social mobility) Opposed Indian rights; supported the spoils system.
Irish Immigration
Beginning in the 1830's: large numbers. Resented for dress, religion, accent and clannishness.
Native-born Southerners who co-operated with Northern authorities during Reconstruction
Abandonment of Silver Coins
1873: Congress.
Bland-Allison Act
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890. Despite its passage, the government refused to coin the silver it purchased.
Tenure of Office Act
1867. Passed to reduce the power of Andrew Jackson.
Morill Tariff Act
Conscription Act
National Banking Act
1860 Slave Population
4 million
Specie Circular
1836. Andrew Jackson. Only gold or silver or bank notes backed by gold or silver could be used to pay for public land. Helped spark the panic of 1837.
1832 Veto of Bank Charter renewal
Jackson. He then withdrew federal funds contributed to the expansion of circulating bank notes which led to the Specie Circular
Twelfth Amendment
Electoral College must vote separately for President and V.P. (because of tie between Jefferson and Burr)
Second Constitutional Amendment
Right to Bear Arms
The Federalist Papers
85 anonymous essays advocating the ratification of the Constitution and stressing the inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation. (Jefferson, Jay and Madison were 'Publius')
Ostend Manifesto
1854. American ministers to France, G.B. and Spain met in Ostend, Beligium and stated that if Spain would not sell Cuba, we had the right to take it by force.
The Declaratory Act
1766. Passed after Parliament rescinded the Stamp Act 1765. Affirmed that Parliament had the right to make binding laws on the Colonies.
The Quartering Act
The Currency Act
The Sugar Act
The Stamp Act
The Scarlett Letter
Nathanial Hawthorne: 1850
The House of the Seven Gables
Nathaniel Hawthorne: 1851
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman: 1855
Henry David Thoreau: 1854
Moby Dick
Herman Melville: 1851
Secessionism during War of 1812
Strongest among New England Federalists. Voiced at Hartford Convention 1814-15
The Hartford Convention
1814-15. Recommended constitutional amendments to weaken Southern power and the Democratic party (by New England Federalists)
Joint-Stock Company
Form of business organization. Formed Jamestown and Massachusetts.
The Econmienda
Grant to Natives living on a specific piece of land in the Spanish colonies.
Prince Henry
Financed the development of new navigation techniques in the 15th century.
George III
Kind of England during American Revolution
Became the dominant political ideology during the American Revolution (1776 - 1783)
Northeast's primary concern after 1840
Most influential citizens in New England 1760's
Advantage of North over South during Civil War
Fighting offensive war
Increased manufacturing; large immigrant labor force; diverse economy; open harbors
Union Strategies
Block Confederate coastline
Seize control of Mississippi
Seize Richmond, Virginia
Control interior southern railways
Presidents after Lincoln
Andrew Jackson
Ulysses Grant
Rutherford Hayes
Chester Arthur
The Northwest Ordinance
Barred slavery from these territories (1787)
Virginia Colony
Founded as Joint-Stock (1607) Became a Royal Colony in 1624.
The growth of anti-slavery sentiment
The Liberator (Garrison) 1831
American Anti-Slavery Society: 1833
The 'gag rule': 1836
The Liberty Party: 1840
Uncle Tom's Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe): 1851-52
The Panic of 1857
Caused by over-speculation in railroad stocks. Bank failures highest in North; few in South. Lasted ~ 1 year: by 1858 the economy began to recover: European demand for foodstuffs and cotton.
Spanish New World Civilizations
Spanish King sole authority: represented by two viceroys.
Indians enslaved until the 1540's: then subject to forced labor (repartimiento). The Mission System evangelized the Natives. Main interest initially: gold and silver (exploited)
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Founded 1630 by the Puritans (wanted to purify, not separate from the Anglican Church).
The Pilgrims
Separatists: established Plymouth in 1620. Signed the Mayflower Compact (agreement to follow groups rules and laws) Helped by Squanto who taught them about nature and survival.
The Mayflower Compact
Signed by all the majority free male Pilgrims before landing at Plymouth. Agreement to follow all the laws adopted by the group.
Founded by James Ogelthorpe: 1732. Debtor Colony to help those released from British prisons.
Who thought the Spanish colonies too weak to hold on to their territories at the turn of the 19th century?
Thomas Jefferson
What State seceded BEFORE Lincoln's inauguration?
South Carolina (1860)
Owners of large tracts of land in Dutch "New Netherland"
Who took over New Netherland?
The British (1664)
The Pequot War
Between Puritans and Pequots (1635 - 67)
The French Huguenots
Settled in the Carolinas (then joined) during the 17th century.
Colonial farm implements
mould board plow; hoe, rake and grain cradle.
Founded Pennsylvania
William Penn (1681)
Two largest Southern cities
Charleston, South Carolina (pop. 10,000 in 1750) Baltimore, Maryland (pop. 5000 in 1750)
Who controlled the 'purse strings' of the colonial governments?
The Colonial Assemblies (this put them in an advantageous bargaining position with the royal governor)
"Popular Sovreignty"
Concept of Stephen Douglas; embodied: Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The people decide the slavery issue for themselves.
President / Vice President of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis / Alexander Stephens
Robert E. Lee
Commander of Confederate forces
Robert. Y. Hayne
South Carolina Senator prior to the Civil War. Outspoken supporter of Southern issues / slavery / State's Rights
California 'Gold Rush'
Colorado and Nevada 'Gold Rushes'
South Dakota 'Gold Rush'
1880 and 1896
Alaskan 'Gold Rushes'
Introduced log cabins
Swedes, in Delaware be tween 1638 and 1655
Treaty of Paris
Declaration of Independence
Cornwallis surrenders
Constitutional Convention
Philadelphia: 1787
Constitution ratified
Lincoln and Johnson saw the Civil War as a rebellion of what?
By what method did Lincoln and Johnson deal with those they saw as responsible for the Civil War?
Presidential pardons.
How did the Radical Republicans see the South after the Civil War?
Conquored provinces / unorganized territories overwhich Congress should have control.
The Black Codes
Passed by the South after the Civil War.
How were slaves counted and for what purposes?
As 3/5 of a white man: for both taxation and representation. This was a compromise: the South wanted to count them for representation but not taxation and the North took the opposite position.
What General emerged to prominence in battles along the Mississippi?
Ulysses S. Grant (Fort Donelson and Vicksburg)
Who became the Supreme Commander of all Southern forces in 1864?
Ulysses S. Grant
South Carolina Senator between 1832 - 1850
John C. Calhoun
Hinton Rowan Helper
Published 'The Imipending Crisis' in 1857. (said slavery caused the South to be economically inferior to the North)
Frederick Douglass
Leading black abolitionist
Roots in 18th century Enlightenment. Rejected concept of the Trinity.
William Ellery Channing
Formally organized Unitarianism in 1825. (No doctrine beyond the universal brotherhood of God and man)
Widespread religious belief among the educated classes in the 18th century.
Philosophical and literary movement involving several reformed Unitarians (including Ralph Waldo Emerson). Emerged in the 1830's
Presbyterianism and Congregationalism
Orthodox Christian denominations deeply rooted in the colonial period.
Alien and Sedition Acts
1797 - 98. President John Adams' attempt to crush the Democratic - Republicans (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison).
John Adams motivation for Alien and Sedition Acts
He feared that Jefferson / the Democratic - Republicans were bent on establishing a French-style class system in America. The A&S Acts were his attempt to keep his party in power.

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