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Pollution Control


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When did regulatory measures and economic stimuli emerge for Pollution prevention?
1990 0nwards
Continued emphasis on technological controls, with emerging concepts of waste management and reduction occured during which period?
1980 - 1990
What was significant about the period 1970 - 1980?
Greater emphasis on technological solutions and control, EPA and DoE founded
Were there any pollution control prevention strategies pre-1945?
No! no controls, waste is dispersed.
What steps are responsible for the evolution of pollution control?
(1) Recognition of waste
(2) Waste is dispersed
(3) waste control
(4) Waste minimization, recycling and reuse
(5) Product modification
(6) Changes to the organization
What are the forms of waste?
waste may be material or energy.
How was waste defined once it was recoginized?
(1) allocation of goods or resources to uses which are not the most valuable.
(2)when the relative value of a goood is different from that goods marginal cost of production
How is waste dispersed?
Discareded as cheaply as possible
(2) controlled release to areas of less "sensitive" impact
How is waste control characterized?
By increasingly complex technological solutions to reduce "end-of-pipe" emissions.
what are the measures that characterize step #4.
>reduce output flows
>recycle waste back into production system
>finding new "value" in the waste and market it as a product to others
what is the strategy for product modification?
(1) Changes in product design
(2)Changes in material and energy usage
(3) changes in market objectives
What are the evolutionary changes that were associated with changes in product
>market orientation
>organizational values
>organizational structure
>para-organization affiliations
What is the purpose of the master equation?
it attempts to identify a relationship between Environmental Impact (EI) and the following parameters:
1)population size
2)population wealth
3)a scalar measure of EI per unit GDP to tie these quantities
what is the IPAT equation?
I = P x A x T

I is EI
P is population
A is affluence
T is Technology
How is ecological population growth described?
P = P x e\RT

P is Population
R is rate of growth (a constant)
t is the time of the growth projection
What is GDP?
Gros Domestic Product
which is a measure of the total market value of all goods and services produced in one year
what is GDP/capita?
is the GDP divided by the population count
what is "real GDP"?
"nominal GDP" adjusted for inflation
How is GDP calculated?
GDP = C + I + G + NX

C is consumption (0.66 of all spending)
I is investment
G is Government spending
NX is net exports (exports - imports)
In which act is pollution prevention defined?
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999
what is the principle of Sustainable development?
states that a development plan must not compromise the welfare of future generations for the benefit of present generations
what are the EPA's 4 stages of Life cycle Assessment?
1)raw materials acquisition
3)consumer use/reuse/maintainance
4)Recycle waste management
Define (ppm)parts per million?
this is the volume of gas within 1 million volumes of air.
temp decreases with height
rapid vertical mixing
What is Pollution Prevention/what are the attributes of P2?
1)operation of equipment to minimize environmental impact

2)shift from end of pipe solution

3)Focus minimize prod/toxicity of waste
what makes up the pollution prevention Hierarchy?
source reduction
ultimate disposal
where in terms of priority does source reduction fall?
what powers does CEPA (1999) have?
provides MOE power to prepare P2 plans
describe the concept of Lif cycle assessment (LCA)?
a holistic approach to ID env. consequences & opportunities for improvement

Focus is on EI, not cost

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