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Chapter 27


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Operation Overlord
Led by Eisenhower, it was the land-sea-air assualt on France in 1944
Battle of Britain 1940
the Germans sought to terror-bomb, and U-boats, the British into submission
Office of Censorship
In 1941 FDR established it to examine all letters going overseas and worked with publishers and broadcasters to suppress info that might damage the war effort
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
John L. Lewis
Head of the United Mine Workers, he led more than half a million coal workers out of work 3 times in 2 months
Office of War Mobilization
James F. Brynes was the head of. It exercised control over all aspects of the economy
Revenue Act 1942
raised the top income-tax rate from 60 to 90% and added middle and lower income groups to the tax rolls for the first time. In 1943, Congress introduced the payroll-deduction system to withhold income taxes from wages and salaries
Potsdam Declaration
Truman warned Japan that if they did not surrender an atomic bomb would be dropped . Japan rejected the declaration and a bomb was dropped in Hiroshima, Stalin declared war on Japan, and then another bomb was dropped in Nagasaki
Smith v. Allwright 1944
The Supreme Courth ruled that Texa's all-white primary was unconstitutional
Henry Wallace
FDR's running mate in the election of 1940. He was the Secretary of Agriculture
Admiral Chester Nimitz
He decoded Japanese naval codes, planning to knock out the American fleet, but he knew the plans and locations of the Japanese ships.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act 1944
Also known as the GI Bill of Rights, it provided living allowances , tuition fees, and supplies to veterans pursuing their ambitions with that money, most paid for their education
Atlantic Charter
FDR and Chuchill meeting that stated that condemned aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act 1943
Passed over FDR's veto, it limited workers' right to strike in any facility deemed essential to the war effort and empowered the P to seize and operate the plant
Frank Knox
Appointed by FDR as secretary of the navy (Landon's running mate)
lend-lease bill
Aproved by Congress in 1941, this bill allowed the US to lend supplies to the Allies
Executive Order 8802
In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
Tripartite Pact
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
Henry L. Stimson
Appointed by FDR as secretary of war
Josip Broz Tito
Assited by the USSR in 1944, he led guerillas to liberate Yugoslavia.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Founded in 1942, this new civil-rights organization advanced the strategy of nonviolent resistance to challenge Jim Crow
Battle of Stalingrad
Soviet and German armies fought this war. The Red Army (Russia) was victorious and saved Stalingrad
Winston Churchill
Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid
The Joint Chiefs of Staff
William D. Leahy was chief of the staff that was made up of representatives of the army, navy and the army air force
J. Robert Oppenheimer
the Manhattan Project's scientific director
Battle of the Coral Sea
A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.
cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts
• To encourage business to convert to war production, the govn't guaranteed profits through this system which gave generous tax write-offs and suspension of antitrust prosecutions
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
V-E day
Americans celebrated after German government surrendered on May 8
The Office of Price Administration
During WWII, it imposed strict price controls to check inflation as more and more personal income pursued fewer consumer goods
National War Labor Board
During WWII it mediated disputes between management and laborers to prevent strikes
War Manpower Commission
During WWII, it supervised the mobilization of men and women for the military, war industry, and agriculture
Election of 1944
FDR won the renomination and Harry S. Truman became Vice President.
August 14, 1945
President Harry S Truman's announcement of the Japanese surrender.
Office of War Information
Created by FDR in 1942. Headed by Elmer Davis, a radio news commentator. Employed many people to explain the war and to counter enemy propaganda.
War Powers Act
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Congress passed it, granting the President unprecedented authority
War Refugee Board
Assisted in the rescue and relocation of those condemned to the death camps
National Defense Research Committee
Committee made before the war by FDR that organized scientists for a weapons race against the Axis.
A. Philip Randolph
president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Organized the March-on-Washington in 1942 to protest racial descrimination and warned FDR that if he didn't end discrimination in the armed services, African-Americans would besiege Washington
Korematsu v. US 1944
The Supreme Court found the evacutation of all the Japanese in the West Coast into relocation camps in 1944
Postdamn Conference
President Truman, Churchill and Stalin met to complete the postwar arrangements started at the Yalta Conference but the leaders could not agree on anything
Office of Scientific Research and Development
In 1941 it was made as the contracting agency for the development of new ordnance and medicines. It improved radar and sonar devices, rocket weapons and proximity fuses for mines and artillery shells, the development of jet aircraft, pressurized cabins for pilots, and high altitude bombsights
the Women's Army Corps (WAC)
more than 350,000 women served in WWII
James F. Byrnes
He was asked by FDR to leave the Supreme Court and become "assistan president" of America's domestic war effort. He was to increase the coordination of and cooperation between the many govn't agencies and representatives of industry and the military involved in carrying out the war effort
The Navy's V-12 and the army's specialized-training programs
Sent nearly a million servicemen to college campuses during the war to acquire skills in engineering, foreign languages, economics and sciences.
George C. Marshall
In 1942, this army chief of staff, proposed an invasion of France that would force Hitler to transfer troops to the West and thus lessen the pressure on the Red armies
National Congress of American Indians
Native Americans passed it To mobilize against the campaign to end all reservations and trust protections
Wendell L. Willkie
The Rep nominee during the election of 1940. Was supported by those in the corporate world
Henry J. Kaiser
He had supervised the constrution of Boulder Dam and reduced the prodution time to less than two weeks instead of 6 months and then to one ship a day
Manhattan Engineering District
the code name given to the atomic research project
Dwight D. Eisenhower
He was in command the the Operating Torch. An Allied army of Americans and British surrounded the Germans in Tunisia in 1943 where they surrendered. In 1944, he was chosen supreme allied commander in Europe for the "second front"
Office of Strategic Services
The The Joint Chiefs of Staff created it to conduct espionage, analyze the enemy's strengths and weaknesses, and gather the intelligence information required for strategic planning during WWII
Douglas MacArthur
He defended the Philipines and during WWII he led the army from Australia to defeat Japanese
December 7, 1941
Japanese attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, that brought the US into the war

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