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Unit Four History Exam (Fixed)

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Explain the results of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Results:
1.This treaty resolved the boundary issue with Great Britain and Maine.
2.There is now a boundary line through Maine 1/2 belonging to the U.S. 1/2 belonging to Great Britain.





Describe who encouraged U.S. citizens to immigrate to Texas in the 1820's
The Mexican government mainly. Though Stephen F. Austin encouraged U.S. citizens to settle in Texas once he got his contract approved by the Mexican government
Name the major problems between U.S. citizens in Texas and the Mexican government
1.Concerns of the Americans about the Mexican government regarding slavery
2.The requirement that U.S. citizens must become Mexican citizens and take up roman-catholic as their religion
3.Mexican import duties
4.No Americans may come in (Mexico changed their mind)


List the major campaigns of the Texas Revolution
Background Info:
1.Texas lacks a self government.
2.Santa Anna abolished the Mexican constitution and became a dictator.
3.In which led to a revolution that lasts 4 to 5 months.
4.Texas becomes independent from Mexico
Major campaigns:
1.the seize of Bayja (bear)
2.The battle of the Alamo (mexicans whipe us ou)
3.Golliad Massacre
4.Battle of San Jacinto (santa anna finally surrenders)








Name the "Hero of San Jacinto"
Sam Houston - 1st president of the republic of Texas
(also head of Texas's forces)
Describe what happened when Texas tried to enter the U.S. in 1836
1.Texas is told it is not possible due to domestic politics, slavery, and causing was with Mexico
2.U.S. recognized Texas as an independent nation
3.Texas is going through a great depression

Explain why the Mormons traveled to Utah
Religious Prosecution (Texans still want to be annexed into the U.S.)
In other news:
John Tyler becomes President

Describe how President Tyler annexed Texas
1.Tyler enlists the support of John C. Calhoun (who becomes secretary of state)
2.Calhoun and Tyler create propaganda that they'll loose Texas to Great Britain if they don't annex it.
3.Calhoun negotiates a treaty between Texas and the U.s. to annex
4.The senate rejects the treaty (failed to be ratified)
5.Tyler asks for a joint resolution for the house of representatives to agree to annex Texas
6.Texas becomes a state!




Name the candidates and winner of the presidential election of 1844
Whig candidate: Henry Clay
Democrat candidate: James K. Polk (Wins!)
Liberty candidate:Berny

Describe the effects of the Texas-annexation issue on the 1844 presidential election
1.martin Van Burn lost the democratic party nomination when southerners saw that he had agreed with Clay to oppose immediate annexation
2.James K. Polk announced he was in favor of immediate annexation
3.Henry Clay was indecisive on the annexation issue caused the north-eastern whigs to create the liberty party
4.The liberty party got just enough votes to cost Clay the election


Describe the basic tenets of Manifest Destiny
James K. Polk is the manifest destiny president.
He thought is was our destiny to spread westward.
Tenets:
1.God is on the side of American expansion
2.The spread of American government would spread democratic freedom
3.The population growth required territorial expansion in order to have more economic opportunities




Explain how the Oregon boundary question was solved
James K. Polk wanted to claim all of Oregon
1.Polk asserts an American claim all of Oregon to belong to the U.S.
2.He wants the 49th parallel to extend all the way to the pacific ocean
3.The British reject that offer because it would mean that they would loose part of Vancouver island and wouldn't have access to the Colombian river
4.Polk asks congress to terminate the joint agreement (congress does it) Polk sends the 1 year notice
5.The British purposes that the 49th parallel to loop south and Vancouver island and joint use of the Colombian river (this compromise is approved)




Explain why the U.S. went to war with Mexico in 1846
1.The U.S. annex Texas and asserted Texas's claim to the disputed area for all of Texas
2.Mexico broke of diplomatic relation with the U.S. and refused to discuss the boundary problem
3.Polk sent American troops North of the Rio Grande
4.Mexican troops cross the Rio Grande and attack the American troops (killed a few)


Name the major campaigns and U.S. military leaders in the Mexican War
The North Mexican Campaign: leader Zachery Taylor
The Central Mexican Campaign: leader Winfield Scott
And Nicholas Trist: Negotiator for the treaty of Hidalgo (Polk represents him)

Explain the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1.Mexico seated California and New Mexico to the U.S.
2.Rio Grande was established as the border between Texas and Mexico
3.The U.S. would pay 15 million to Mexico
4.U.S. agrees to pay to behalf that Mexico pays their claims upon the U.S. citizens
5.Any previous Mexican citizens living in the north border becomes an American citizen



Name the chief U.S. negotiator of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Nicholas Trist
Name the institution that transformed the U.S. economy in the 1840's and 1850's
Railroads
Explain how railroads transformed the economy
1.Dramatically reduce the east of transporting people and goods
2.Developed new methods of financing business
3.The railroads spur development in the iron industry
4.Drove many canals out of business




describe the essential features of the factory system
1.Supervised work force largely because of:
2.Use of machines
3.use of interchangeable parts
4.cash payments to workers
5.labor supply





list the countries that produced large numbers of immigrants to the U.S. in the 1840's and 1850's
Germany and Ireland produced large numbers of immigrants
what song writer of the 1850's is known as the father of American music
Stephen Foster
Explain the status of slavery in future states under the Constitution
1.There is no mention of the Constitution in slavery states
2.Congress has the power to admit new states (the argument was as a commission of a new state, congress authorized new states would be free states)
3.It was assumed that congress could prohibit slavery in a certain territory

Describe the results of the attempt to pass the Wilmot Proviso
There will be no slavery in any territory gained from Mexico (Wilmot Proviso)
Results:
1.The Proviso fails
2.Sectional concerns now triumph all other concerns
3.Soil should be free of slavery
4.Launched the free soil movement




Describe the basic tenets of popular (or squatter) sovereignty
1.Territory settlers would decide the issue of slavery (whether to have it or not)
2.For Northern democrats, settlers would decide this before the growth of the territory
3.For Southern democrats, settlers would decide at the end of state hood

Name the major political supporters of popular (or squatter) sovereignty
Democrats
Name the presidential candidates and winner in the election of 1848
Whig candidate:Zachery Taylor (wins!)
Democrat candidate: Luis Cast
Name the presidential candidates and winner in the election of 1854
Whig candidate: Winfield Scott
Democrat candidate: Franklin Peirce (wins!)
Free Soilers candidate: John Hail

Explain why Stephen A. Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in 1854
1.The Bill is authorized so the rest of territories have territory governments.
2.Douglas wanted more new territories to encourage popular sovereignty.
Explain the results of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill
1.Bill passes
2.Bill has a catastrophic effect on the economy (sectional harmony)
3.Destroyed 2 party system (whig party splits completely north and south)
4.Northern Democrats voted against this bill
5.Anti-democratic collisions in the north will eventually evolve into a totally north party (Republicans)





Explain the origins and beliefs of the Know-Nothing Party
Origins:
1.No Nothing Party (Native born Americans)
2.Many nativists feared the catholic
3.Massive immigration of catholics (believed catholics would bring the nation down because they believed whatever the pope had them to believe)
Beliefs:
1.Catholic immigrants would lead to a dictatorship
2.Believed catholics were setting their vote for the political leader of township
3.Immigrants would take all their job opportunities
4.anti-slavery







Explain the origins of the Republican party
1.Groups in the north opposed the Kansas-Nebraska act
2.Know-Nothing party thought slavery was worse than the pope taking over
Describe the origins of Bleeding Kansas
1.Fighting over the issue of popular sovereignty
2.John Brown (Abolitionist preacher) goes out to fight
3.Hacks up all slave holders (pro-slavery people)

Name the presidential candidates and winner in the election of 1856
Democrat candidate:James Bacannon (Wins! & is the worst president ever)
Republican candidates:John Fronrt & Millard Fillmore (John Taylor's vice president)
Discuss the holdings or conclusions in the Dred Scott case
1.Only American citizens can sue in federal court, Dred Scott couldn't because he was black
2.Congress never had the power to eliminate slavery because the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Discuss the intent of the Lecompton Constitution
Purpose by Kansas to have a state constitution.
1.Kansas wanted to have to be admitted as a slave state
Explain the principles and results of the Lincoln-Douglas debates
Background:
Senate race in Illinois, Lincoln is a Republican and he wants Stephen Douglas's job (senator)
Principles:
1.Doesn't want it to triumph moral opposition to slavery (Lincoln thinks so) Slavery is evil (no compromises)
2.Douglas says extinction of slavery endangers the union therefore we need popular sovereignty in the states that want slavery
Results:
1.Douglas ins the election (Lincoln never becomes John Brown's senator)
2.Lincoln won respect through out the north (Republicans)
3.It sharpened the ideological idea of slavery being imoral







Explain the course and results of the Speaker's race in 1859
course:
1.The race becomes nasty
2.John Sherman previous inducement of a certain book
3.The point of the book was that slavery was no good for non-slave holders
4.So Shermans's election was opposed
results:
Sherman was withdrew from the race and persuaded Republicans to end slavery in the south (end conflict)





Name the presidential candidates and winner in the election of 1860
Republican:Abraham Lincoln (wins!)
Northern democrat:Stephen Douglas
Southern democrat:John Brecreridge
Constitutional union:John Bell


Describe the basic beliefs of the Republican party in 1860
1.Hault of the extinction of slavery
2.High protective tariff
3.Free home steds (free land from the government)
4.In favor of federal aids and internal improvements


Describe the basic beliefs of the democratic parties in 1860
North Believed in popular sovereignty
South Believed in federal laws of protect slavery rights
Describe the Constitutional Union Party in 1860
Believed in the spirit of compromise, keeping the union together under the constitution
Explain the results of the presidential election of 1860
1.Lincoln wins with 40 of the votes (Lincoln)
2.It was the way of the electoral college because the north has a huge population advantage over the south, Lincoln won the majority of the votes so he could carry the election
Describe how southerners saw the election of 1860
1.Republican out look are opposed to southern interests
2.The south was in a permenate minority
3.The south has lost it's influence on the presidency (The senate and the house are gone)
4.South wants to leave the union


Name the first state to secede in 1860
South Carolina leaves before Lincoln even gets in office
Describe how the various groups of southerners felt about secession
1.Immediate secessionists (S.C. leaves immediately)
2.Co-opportunists (believed all the slave states should act together)
3.Unionists (people who wanted to stay in the union)

Explain the geographic and philosophic differences in the southern secessionist movements
Seven lower states (southern boundary) secede eight northern slave states rejected the concern (were for a compromise)
Characterize in political terms the new Confederate government leaders
1.relatively moderate
2.wanted a constitutional government very much like the government before Republicans existed
Describe the differences in the Confederate Constitution from the U.S. Constitution
1.No federal tariffs
2.No subsidizing federal internal improvements
3.No interference with slavery in the states
4.Wanted a prevision that required the confederate congress to protect slavery in their territory


Explain the parts and results of the Crittenden Compromise of 1861
(senator of Kentucky) John Crittenden purposes a compromise
parts:
1.wants to extend the Missouri compromise to the pacific, everything below the line is slave state
2.The federal government will pay them for their escaped slaves
3.government will be prohibited from abolishing or regulating slavery for ever
Results:
1.Lincoln opposes the compromise
2.Republicans oppose it and the compromise fails






Discuss how the Civil War began militarily
1.Confederate soldiers shoot on S.C. it's t gaurd against the harbor
2.Federal forts claimed in southern territory that originally belonged to the U.S.
Describe the reaction of the Upper South to the coming of the Civil War
4 states in the upper south secede and join the confederacy (weren't willing to be apart of the union that was forced to secede)
Describe the reaction the North to the coming of the Civil War
North was united in opposition of the states leaving the union
Explain the reaction of the Border States to the coming of the Civil War
Unionism and federal intervention keep them from seceding
List the major northern advantages in the Civil War
1.Larger population
2.much greater manufacturing capacity
3.Many more railroads in the north

List the major southern advantages in the Civil War
1.Defended their own territory (shorter supply lines)
2.Choose the time and place of battle
3.Acting on familiar terrain (knew their land)
4.Had a friendly civilian population
5.Could define their cause as defending their home land



Explain the major portions of Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan & How Lincoln's actual plan differed
Anaconda plan:wants to avoid physical conduct with south.
1.blockade on all southern parts
2.drive down the Mississippi valley and cut the confederacy in two and took the river
3.squeeze the territory (like an anaconda)
Lincoln's Plan:wants to add a second front to take Richmond Virgina



Describe how both the North and the South acquired manpower for their armies
Intentionally, both sides rely on volunteers who wanted a shot.
1.north and south both turn into a draft
2.In the north they assigned requirements in the states for drafts (including alot of substitutes and bribing)
3.In the south, anyone owning 20 or more slaves didn't have to be drafted causing it to be a poor man's war


List the major southern weaknesses in the Civil War
1.Lack of manufacturing compacity
2.the inability to feed their population
3.inadiquet transportation
4.difficulty in financing the war & army


Compare Lincoln and Davis as leaders both militarily and politically
1.Lincoln was old and asserting new powers (such as the Marshal law) borrowed money with congress approval
2.Davis left civilian problems to congress because his focus was on the war
political support:Lincoln was very good at leadership support. Davis has no pary support...It's Davis against the world
military matters: Lincoln focused on success (you don't win the battle you're fired) While Davis was abrupt with his conduct


Name Jefferson Davis' southern opponents
1.Many people in the confederate congress
2.A number of confederate governors
3.A majority of the news papers

Name Winfield Scott's successor as Commanding General of the U.S. Army
George B. McClellan
Describe the western campaigns of 1862
1.The battle of Fort Henry and Fort Dowelson
2.Battle is Shiloh
3.Battle of the catch of New Orleans

Discuss the eastern campaigns in 1862
1.Panchula campaign
2.Bear run
3.Battle of Antidum
4.Battle of Fredricksburg
5.Battle of Chanearsnile



Discuss the southern diplomatic strategy in 1861 and 1862
1.England decided not to come in at least wanted to break the blockage
2.Once ending slavery became a war goal emancipation was in consideration
Explain why Lincoln was hesitant to abolish slavery
1.He didn't want to anger unionist who owned slaves
2.His performance overall was a gradual end to slavery that involved colonization of slaves
3.He was concerned that emancipation move would be seen as an act of desperation

Describe the short-term and long-term results of the Battle of Antietam
short term:
it's a draw, neither side wins, but Lee escapes with his army
long term:
The emancipation proclamation was issued


Discuss the results of the Emancipation Proclamation
1.It did not immediately free anyone because it applied only to areas under the union control
2.It commits the the union to abolitionism as a war aim (weaken the confederacy)
3.Avoided republican party term oil with Lincoln in the minority
4.The issue accelerates the break down of slavery and practice because the emancipation proclamation was issued


Name the turning point of the Civil War in the west in 1863, describe why it was the turning point, and describe the primary facts that can support an argument that it was not a turning point at all
The turning point:
Vicksburg
Why:
Because now the Mississippi is now in control of the union. Because the south is now split in two.
Overall:
It lifts dramatic morality in the north




"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth..."
In what speech were those words spoken, what was the occasion of that speech, who made that speech, and what was the significance or effect of that speech
Words Spoken:
In the Gettysburg address
Occasion:
Dedication of the cemetery of Gettysburg
Who made it:
Abraham Lincoln
Significance:
All men are created equal will now have a new birth of freedom, it made african americans freedom a goal of the war






What was the primary political significance of the fall of Atlanta to Union forces?
Boosts the chances of the north taking Atlanta from the south
Name the commander of the Union Army in the March to the Sea
William Tucumsome Sherman
Name the candidates and results of the presidential election of 1864
Republican: Abraham Lincoln (wins again!)
Democrat:George McCullan
Name the place where General Robert E. Lee surrendered in 1865 and describe the significance of the surrender
Place:
Lee surrenders at the Applamatic court house
Significance:
The civil war ends!


Explain the constitution issues solved by the Civil War
The federal government is now supreme overall states
Explain why the North won the Civil War
Their victory was inedible
Explain the differences between Lincoln's reconstruction policy and Congress's reconstruction policy
Congress's policy:
Presidential reconstruction
Discretional (radical) reconstruction
Lincoln's policy:
No protection for slaves (other than no slavery)



Describe Lincoln's plan for reconstruction
Provisions: 10% plan
1.Anyone who took an oath of allegiance had a part in the war
2.Once 10% of the people in the state had done this could set up a new government plan

Describe the Wade-Davis (Congress') plan for reconstruction
Congress' plan:
1.When 50% had taken a vote then they could set up a government
2.There was no provisions for voting by blacks

Describe Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plan
Appointed provisional governors for getting states back into the union
Detail Andrew Johnson's actions that led to a break with Congress
1.Veto's two bills by Congress
2.Passed a civil rights bill that gave blacks some rights that all white civilians had
3.Congress overrides the civil rights bill

Discuss the major portions of the 14th Amendment
Equal protection laws
Describe the results of the elections of 1866
Republicans increase to 2/3 or more in a house vote. Severe major radical wings of the republican party are gained
Describe Congressional reconstruction policy in 1867
1.5 military districts
2.quick re-admission of states in the union
3.Number of ex-confederates could not participate in the southern governments

Explain the origins and results of the Impeachment crisis of 1868
Origins:
Congress passes laws to limit the presidents authority
Results:
Johnson is acquitted by one rate.
Whole matter creates the impression that congress is out of control



Describe the economy of the south after the Civil War
Many physical improvements were ruined. Currency was worthless.
Name the groups in the Republican coalition in the South after 1867
1.Newly voting blacks (voted for republican)
2.Businessmen who wanted government aid (voted republican)
3.Poor white farmers needed economic relief (voted republican)

Describe the political and fiscal policies of the southern Republican reconstruction governments
Political:
1.Created systems of public education
2.Democratization of government (black participation)
3.Pushed for funds to increase public services
4.pushed for subsidizing
Fiscal:
1.lots of money lost
2.failed railroads
3.corrupt government







Explain how reconstruction was overthrown in the South
1.Open violence reduces republican voting
2.appeals are made to democratic voters for hostility towards promotion of economic development
3.Decline the federal government use of force

Describe the candidates and results of the presidential election of 1876
Republican:Rutherford Hayes(wins!)
Democrat:Samuel Tildon (wins popular vote)
Describe the terms of the Compromise of 1877
Hayes would president.
The last federal troops will be withdrawn

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