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Ch. 7 - The Road to Revolution

Terms

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Quartering Act of 1765
a measure that required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops.
Republicanism
a just society as one in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good.
Sons & Daughters of Liberty
groups of ardent spirits, cried "Liberty, Property, and No Stamps." enforced the nonimportation agreements against violators, often with a generous coat of tar and feathers. Patriotic mobs ransacked the house of unpopular officials, confiscated their money, and hanged effigies of stamp agents on liberty poles.
Stamp Act Congress of 1765
brought together in New York City twenty-seven distinguished delegates from nine colonies, who after much debate drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and beseeched the king and Parliament to repeal the repugnant legislation. It was largely ignored in England, but was a step toward intercolonial unity in America.
Minute Men
at Lexington Massacre they refused to disperse rapidly and shots were fired that killed 8 Americans and wounded several more. Men that would watch the town.
Declaratory Act of 1766
reaffirmed Parliament's right "to blind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." The British government drew line in sand, which defined the constitutional principle it would not yield: absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North Americans colonies.
Intolerable Acts
charted rights of the colonial Massachusetts were swept away. Restrictions were likewise placed on the precious town meetings. Enforcing officials who killed colonists in line of duty could be sent to Britain for trial.
Navigation Law of 1650
aimed at rival Dutch shippers trying to elbow their way into the American carrying trade. Thereafter all commerce flowing to and from the colonies could be transported only in British vessels
Admiralty Courts
juries were not allowed, and the defendants who were assumed guilty unless they could prove themselves innocent.
Mercantilism
the belief that wealth was a power and that a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury .
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams signal contribution in Massachusetts in which some eighty towns in the colony speedily set up similar organizations, whose chief function was to spread the spirit of resistance by interchanging letters and thus keep alive opposition to British policy.
British East India Company
overburdened with seventeen million lbs of unsold tea, was facing bankruptcy. If it collapsed the London government would lose heavily in tax revenue.
Boston Port Act
closed tea-stained harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured
Stamp Act of 1765
mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax, stamps were required on bills of sale for about fifry trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and legal documents-including playing cards, pamphlets, newspaper, diplomas, bills of lading, and marriage licenses.
Townshend Acts of 1767
most important of these new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. Unlike the Stamp Act an indirect customs duty payable at American Ports. The tax payed the salaries of the royal governors and judges in America.
Hessians
unemployed German soldiers.
Crispus Attucks
one of the first to die in the Boston Massacre, described by contemporaries as a powerfully built runaway "mulatto" and a leader of the mob.
First Continental Congress
deliberated for seven weeks. It was not legislative but consultative body. It met in Philadelphia to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances, and 12 of the 13 colonies showed up except Georgia.
Thomas Hutchinson
Massachusetts governor who already felt the fury of the mob- when Stamp Act protesters had destroyed his home in 1765. He agreed the Tea Act was unjust, believed very strongly that the colonist had no right to flout the law, infuriated Boston's radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes.
The Association
the most significant action of the Congress, which called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption
George Grenville
prime minister, who ordered the British navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigational Laws. He also secured from Parliament the so-called Sugar Act of 1764- the first law ever passed by the body for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown
Radical Whigs
British political commentators who feared the threat of liberty posed by the arbitrary power of the monarch and his ministers relative to elected representatives in Parliament. They warned citizens to be on guard against against corruption and to be eternally vigilant against possible conspiracies to denude them of their hard won liberties.
Marquis de Lafayet
wealthy young French nobleman, who at the age of 19 was made a major general in the colonial army. He gave $200,000 for his private funds mostly recognition of his family influence and political connections.
Virtual Representation
claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in Boston or Charleston who had never voted for a member of Parliament, americans scoffed at this notion because truthfully they did not really want direct representation in parliament.
Sugar Act of 1764
the first law ever passed by that body for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown, increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies
Non-importation agreements
were in fact a promising stride toward union; they spontaneously united the American people for the first time in common action. It gave ordinary American me and women new opportunities to participate in colonial protests. Helped spread revolutionary fever.
Quebec Act
erroneously regarded in English-speaking America as part of the British reaction to the turbulence in Boston. It was a good law in bad company. It was good for French-Canadians, bad for American colonists. The French were guaranteed their Catholic religion and Quebec's territory extended to the Ohio River.
Samuel Adams
cousin of John Adams, contributed a potent pen and tongue to the American Revolution as a political agitator and organizer of rebellion, leading spirit in hosting the Boston Tea Party, was sent to Massachusetts to the First Continental Congress of 1774, signed the Declaration of Independence and served in Congress until 1781
Boston Tea Party
a band of Bostonian's clumsily disguised as Indians, boarded the the docked tea ships on December 16, 1773. They smashed open 342 chests and dumped the contents into the Boston Harbor.

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