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1865-1900 Part II

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Chief Joesph
Chief of the Nez Perce Indians; 1871- unsuccessful rebellionto Canada against whites; "From where the sun now sits I will fight no more forever"
Social Gospel
Protestant movement to help the poor; led by Washington Gladden; religion + human dignity= overcome problems
John Peter Altgeld
Governor of Illinois (1893-1897); improved child labor & safety laws; pardoned those accused in Haymarket riot & lost his job
Sioux Wars
lasted from 1876-1877 b/t Sioux Indians and white men; led by Sitting Bull; American Officer -Custer killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Indians defeated by U.S.
Jingoism
extreme patriotism; associated with Theodore Roosevelt; nation uses threat or actions against a country to protect own interests
Scalawags
Southerners who supported North & Unionists; bought land from desperate Southerners
Louis Sullivan
architect who created 1st skyscraper in Chicago (about 100 ft tall); when iron was exchanged for steel
13th Amendment
abolished slavery & continued to prohibit it, passed 1865
Interstate Commerce Act
established ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission); monitors business operation b/t states; to regulate railroad prices; 1887
J.P. Morgan
banker that loaned U.S. 60 million to help crisis; refinanced railroads during 1893 depression; 1901- Carneige Steel Company
14th Amendment
secured rights for former slaves & citizenship, includes Due Process & Equal Protection Clauses, passed 1868
Haymarket Incident
worker rally in Chicago; bomb & killed policemen; led to anti-immigration feelings; socialists - Eugene Debbs
Pendleton (Civil Service) Act
implemented merit system in civil service hiring; got rid of "spoil system"; result of Garfield's assassination by an angry office seeker
Atlanta Compromise
speech given by Booker T. Washington; gradualism; economic equality = social equality for blacks
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Salvation Army
found in England b/c religious revivalism; helped the less fortunate; 1878
15th Amendment
1870, black men of can vote, cant be denied the right to vote b/c of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
long drives
cattle drives to North from Texas & hooked up w/ transcontinental railroad; lasted 6 yrs
Compromise of 1877
unwritten deal; settled 1876 election b/t Hayes & Tilden; perm. removal of troops from South guaranteed Hayes presidency
Thomas Nast
political cartoonist 1880's; famous for Democratic Donkey & Uncle Sam; "Father of Political Cartooning"
Helen Hunt Jackson
an American author who wrote "Ramon" and "A Century of Dishonor" led people to see the injustices against Indians
Spanish-American War
1898 aka "Splendid Little War"; start of war due to yellow journalism; U.S wanted Spain to resolve Cuba's fight for independence
Gilded Ages
(1870's-1900) era of social and economic change in American businesses; caused by industrialization; looked good but problems underneath; period of increase in wealth
Munn vs. Illinois
allowed states to regulate business w/in borders; including railroads; Granger Law was overthrown; 1877
Freedmen's Bureau
after Civil War -1865; provided food, clothing, education, medcial care to former slaves; Abraham Lincoln
Alfred Thayer Mahan
naval officer; reason for imperialism of islands; influential views of naval warfare & sea power ; country w/ best navy wins war
Old Immigrants
1840's-1860's, from Northern & Western Europe, seeking political voice or freedom from Europe govs.
horizontal integration
merging of competing companies in one area of business; ex. Rockefeller owned all oil companies of state;
Bread and Butter Unionism
1880s wanted basic rights; solely focused on wages, hours, and working conditions
John Dewey
American philosopher & psychologist; school of pragmatism - 1870's; education policies

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