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History Ch 29 (from Brianna's guides, edited by me)


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Seventeenth Amendment
Amendment allowing direct election of Senators
Revolt of the Debtor
In this era, common people were frustrated with economy and wanted reform, especially reform that would help poor farmers at the expense of creditors
Pullman Strike
After Pullman Co. slashed wages 1/3, workers went on strike & when Altgeld of IL refused to send in state troops, Cleveland sent feds to crush strike due to mail delivery being delayed; first time gov't intervenes in strike
Adlai Stevenson
"soft-money" VP of Cleveland's that would take over should anything go wrong w/ him
James Blaine
Aka "Plumed Knight" this man took secretary of state as consolation prize for failing to attain the presidency
Senator Hill
NY Senator who was D but bolted his party over the silver issue; was a "gold bug"
People's Party / Populists
Third party that demanded free and unlimited coinage of silver 16:1; graduated income tax; gov't ownership of telephone & telegraph
Gold Standard Act
Bill passed by R in 1900 that officially made gold the standard of US economy
Fourth party system
New party system that emerged in 1896 after the McKinley/Bryan election; marked the end of a large scale effort to gain agrarian votes, diminished voter participation, weakening of party organization, & fading issues of $ & civil service reform
Populist candidate in 1892 who got over 1 million pop votes & 22 electoral votes (from KS, CO, ID, NV)
Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act 1894
Bill meant to lower tariffs & add in income tax of 2% on $4000+ that was amended 630x (eventually income tax was removed due to Supreme Ct. decision) that ended up not being as effective as initially intended
J. P. Morgan
Banker's banker who Cleveland turned to when Treasury sunk too low; agreed to lend gov't $65 million in hold but charged $7 million fee
Depression of 1893
Most devastating economic downturn of the century, this lasted 4yrs; caused by overspeculation, labor disorders, & agri depression; EU bankers called in loans
Iron businessman who believed gov't's job was to aid business; backed McKinley w/ lotsa money in the 1896 pres campaign; chairman of the Republican Nat'l Committee
Gold Bugs
Backers of the gold standard in both D & R parties
Eighteenth Amendment
Amendment providing for prohibition
Pinkerton Detectives
Hired soldiers to put down Homestead Strike
Colored Farmers' National Alliance
More than a million black farmers organized in this union because they were often excluded from other orgs due to race
Ex-congressman of OH who ran for pres in 1896 on gold standard platform;
Dingley Tariff Bill
Tariff once again raised 41.3% -> 46.5%, over 850 amendments tacked on; passed thru by Reed
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
Bill allowing for increase coinage of silver to help inflation please debtors; boosted price for the miners but doubled minimum silver that could be acquired under old Bland-Allison law
Fifty-first Congress
Also known as the Billion Dollar Congress, this grp of legislators was the first to appropriate $1 billion in peacetime
Grand Army of the Republic; veteran special interest grp who greatly benefited from Harrison's handouts
Labor leader who organized American Railway Union and Pullman Strike & was sentenced to jail for violating fed injunctions where he read socialist literature & became Socialist candidate later
Sugar trust
Trust that inserted $20 million/yr benefits to itself in the Wilson-Gorman tariff
(R) president in 1889; he wanted to empty the surplus by pleasing political supporters such as the GAR; believed heavily in the spoils system
Endless-chain operation
Mechanism in which owners of paper currency would redeem it for gold & by law the notes had to be reissued, new holders would repeat process & drain Treasury of gold
William Jennings Bryan
Congressman from Nebraska who was a staunch silverite; ran under D & Populist ticket in 1896 pres election renowned for his oratory skills he gave Cross of Gold speech
Nineteenth Amendment
Women's suffrage amendment
Brokered Convention
At a political presidential convention, when one candidate does not have a majority, they go to ballots to negotiate a victor
Democratic candidate for 1892 election; had become more conservative since last time in office, wanted to fix surplus by lowering tariff
Sixteenth amendment
Adopted in 1913, this amendment allowed for an income tax
Man who led march "Commonweal Army" on Washington for the unemployed & urged gov't to alleviate unemployment by an inflationary public works program
McKinley Tariff 1890
To please creditors, this bill raised tariffs to 48.4%, negatively affecting debtors and raising prices on domestic goods
Theodore Roosevelt
Native of NY who became appt'd to the Civil Service Commission under Harrison
Atty general of Cleveland who was arch-conservative & sent fed troops to quash Pullman strike due to mail not being delivered
Jim Crow laws
Segregation laws designed to enforce segregation in public places & backed up by lynchings & intimidation
Thomas Reed
(R) Speaker of the House who changed the House rules to have majority legislate and not be crippled by filibustering minority; he ignored (D) who left the chamber & made it so there wasn't quorum
Tin peddlers
Some of these men were reportedly on Demo payroll & went from house to house badmouthing the McKinley tariff
Grandfather clause
Attempt to keep blacks out of voting: required voters to have a forebear who voted in 1860
Sixteen to one
Ratio of silver to gold that Bryan rested his presidential platform on
Pension Act
Bill showering Civ War vets w/ pensions for those who served for 90days & were unable to do manual labor; helped secure need for high tariff & emptied out surplus
Coin's Financial School
Pamphlet created by William Hope Harvey to convince ppl that there was a conspiracy involved in raising gold above silver

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