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History Identification


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John Rockefellar
Who: Rockefeller, Standard Oil. Co.
What: Pools, trusts, Standard Oil, horizontal integration
Where: Cleveland
When: 1860s
Why: Consolidated control over oil industry using horizatonal integreation; reduced prices; drove out competition with low wages, attention to detail, and forming secret rebate deals with railroads; formed trusts and pools
Battle of Little Big Horn
Who: The Siox and General Custard's Army
What: Battle of Black Hills
When: 1876
Where: Little Bighorn River
Why: American government offered Sioux opportunity to sell or lease land because the government believed the lands were rich with gold; the Sioux refused causing Colonel Custer to recklessly attack the Sioux; his army was massacred
Tweed Ring
Who: Boss Tweed, Democratic party
What: Political machine
When: 1860s-1870s
Where: Tammany Hall, NYC
Why: Boss Tweed held 17 city offices controlling 12000 patronage jobs; although he gave some money to the poor, most he pocketed; in 1871 he was worth $12 million and convicted of 104 counts of fraud and bribery
Samuel Gompers
Who: Gompers, AFL
What: leader of AFL
When: late nineteenth century, 1886
Why: Believed in "pure and simple" unionism, rejecting sweeping assaults on the existing wage-labor system; concerned with winning concrete benefits including 8 hour workday, abolition of child labor, better working conditions; did not believe in women's work; signaled the acceptance of the current wage-labor system
Helen Hunt Jackson
Who: Jackson, Native Americans
What: A Century of Dishonor
When: 1881, 1885
Why: Exposed American duplicity and corruption in dealings with Indians; theme of 100 years of mistreatment; said the reservation system had done irreversible damage and should be abolished
Dawes Act
Who: Congress, Native Americans
What: Legislation to help indians
Where: The West
When: 1887
Why: Intended to help the indians by giving them 160 acres to cultivate for 25 years to be granted a title and U.S. citizenship; destroyed tribal unity by shifting leadership from tribe leader to U.S. government; unsuccessful because many Indians given unfertile land
William Jennings Bryan
Who: William Jennings Bryan
When: 1896
What: presidential canidate of Democrats
Where: Speech in Chicago, "Cross of Gold"
Why: Great orator- gave "Cross of Gold" speech at Democratic convention in Chicago in 1895; wanted unlimited coinage of silver and gold in a 16:1 ratio; attacked protective tariffs; endorsed by the Populists; traveled the countryside in campaign; ran against Taft, McKinley
Farmers Alliances
Where: eastern Texas
Why: Wanted to use political leverage for reform; Wanted government to print more greenbacks; wanted government ownership of the railroads and banks to solve credit problems; wanted popular election of senators, to be able to petition for legislation, and have the secret ballot
Who: Well-educated prominent Republican educators and journalists
What: elite political group of Republicans
When: 1884
Why: Disdained partisan politics; style of independence and moral rectitude; used positions to influence public opinion; would have been mass movement if they hadn't been stuck-up
Edward Bellamy
Who: Bellamy
What: "Looking Backward"
What: Fictitious novel in which a young man takes some opiates to get to sleep in the urban noise; wakes up in 2000 in a state in which all of society is owned by one giant trust; addressed issues of urban life, social unrest, and income inequity
Wabash Case
Who: States, Railroads
Why: Altered Munn V. Illionois by saying states could only regulate commerce within their state- not interstate commerce like the railroads;
The Granges
Who: midwest and South
What: Patrons of Husbandry
What: Created coop from realizing they could rent equipment together; purchased things like seed, fertilizer in as a group for leverage; wanted to fight unfair railroad rates so practically lobbied the state legislatures to set up commitees to set up committees to regulate RRs
Munn V. Illionois
Who: Granges, railroads
When: 1876-77
Where: Illionois
What: legislation to regulate RR prices
Why: Granges wanted state legislation to establish maximum rates RRs could charge for grain elevators; court upheld state's right to uphold right to regulate property "devoted to public use" meant RRs had to lower short-haul rates so they raised long-haul rates
Pullman, Il
What: Company town
When: southern Chicago
Why: Company town created for Pullman sleeper car workers; population around 12,000 constantly changed because no one wanted to stay in the undemocratic town; in 1893 workers had a strike to have wages raised or to have rent lowered
Haymarket Square Riot
When: 1886
What: Strike about police brutality
Why: broke momentum of direct-labor resisteance because press vilified Knights of Labor so membership in that Union declined
Scientific Management
Who: F. W. Taylor, factories
What: Time-management technique
When: later half of nineteenth century
Why: Shifted decision-making from worker to management; increased monotony of working in factory; started time-motion studies to increase efficiency and cut costs;
F. W. Taylor
Who: Taylor
What: Scientific management
Why: Introduced centralized-purchasing, and cost accounting; advocated breaks for workers and rewards to make them more efficient; interested in time-motion studies
Horatio Alger
What: best-selling novels
Why: Wrote best-selling novels about a young man who comes to the city with the goal of becoming "respectable"; emphasized values of hard-work, honesty, sobriety, and good-luck; sold 20 million copies
Social Darwinism
What: Applied Darwin's theory of genetic evolution to society
Why: argues that in the free enterprise system everyone is given an equal opporunity and the "fittest" prevail; natural laws dictate the economic and behavioral aspects of man's behavior and should not be interferred with
Horizontal Integration
Who: Rockefeller, , J.B. Duke
What: Business technique
Vertical Integration
Who: Carnegie, Swift
James Buchanan Duke
Tabacco producer; acquired exclusive rights to a cigarette-making machine; used vertical integretion and horizontal integration; eventually controlled frow raw materials to marketing
Munn v. Illinois
Who: Granges and RRs
What: Granges seeked state regulation and laws to establish maximum rates railroads and elevators could charge; Suptereme Court upheld state right to regulate property "devoted to public use."
F.J. Turner
Said frontier had closed
Pendleton Act
When: 1883
What: First cvil service act; based jobs on merit no patronage; applied only to federal level; passed based on public sentiment from Garfield's assassination
Frank Baum
Wrote the Wizard of Oz
Lester Ward
Founder of modern sociology; "Dynamic Sociology"; argued that Social Darwinism ignored the poteential of many people and that the government should plan and structure society to run smoothly

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