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History Terms


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Sand Creek Massacre
The governor of the Colorado Territory had indicated that peaceful Indians would be allowed to set up camp near Army posts for protection, but then on the morning of Nov. 29, 1864, Colonel John Chivington of the Colorado militia led an attack on Black Kettle's camp. Black Kettle displayed an American flag and a white flag of truce, but the militia attacked anyway, killing about a third of the people in the camp, mostly women and children.
Appomattox Court House
The village near Appomattox, VA where the Civil War was ended after Lee signed a treaty
Immigration is the act of coming to a foreign country to live.
The policy of extending a nation's authority over other countries by economic, political and military means.
In American politics refers to the acquisition of money or position through dishonest means. Examples of graft by an officeholder include accepting money for political favors and awarding government contracts to firms in which the officeholder has an interest.
Zimmerman Note
A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Heir to the Austria-Hungary throne who was killed by a Serbian nationalist causing Austria-Hungary to act pugnaciously.
a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Transcontinental Railroad
The Transcontinental Railroad was the first railroad built that crossed the nation from the Atlantic to the Pacific and was finished in 1869 after being built for 10 years.
Life of a Miner
People who literally sold their lives to their manager, as they would get paid very poorly and put their life in danger every time they would go to work.
The Gold Rush in CA
Where gold was discovered in Sutter's Mill and the news quickly spread so much that 300,000 people came to California.
Schliefflien Plan
A plan by Germany to eventually attack Russia by going and overtaking France by going through and taking over Belgium and then going to Russia. They failed to take over Belgium.
USS Maine
A US Warship that mysteriously exploded and sank in the harbor of Havana, Cuba on Feb. 15th, 1898 to have a reason to go to war with Spain.
Strengths of South during Civil War
Fighting a Defensive War, Fighting Spirit and Fighting on their own soil were the South's advantages during the Civil War.
Alexander Graham Bell
Said to be the maker of the telephone
The situation in which only one seller controls the production, supply, or pricing or a product for which there are no close substitutes.
Were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction.
Jefferson Davis
The President of the Confederacy who really did not deserve to be President, but while President, declared war on Fort Sumter to start the Civil War.
Homestead Act
An act passed by Congress in May of 1862 that said that if anyone moved out West than the government would give him or her 160 acres of land for 5 years if they improved it then it would be theirs all for free.
People like William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and many more who did their part to help the movement to end slavery.
Wounded Knee
A battle with Whites and the Native Americans where it was the last armed conflict between the Sioux and the Army.
Bull Run
The first battle of the Civil War that had casualties in it, also known as Manassas where Stonewall Jackson got his nickname.
Triple Entente
Also knows as Allies, consisted of France, Great Britain and Russian and the US later joined in 1917.
Order of the Main Events of the Civil War
Fort Sumter was the first main event, then the Anaconda Plan, the Battle of Bull Run, Merrimac and Monitor, Emancipation Proclamation, Battle of Gettysburg and then Lee surrendered.
Fort Sumter
The first battle of the Civil War where there was no casualties and was held in Fort Sumter, SC. The Confederates won this battle.
Robert E. Lee
Took over the Confederate Army as General when Johnston was injured and later signed to end the Civil War.
is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union—regardless of skill or trade—thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations.
Culture Shock
The Shock of going to a place and realizing that there are many different cultures already there and having to make one new culture.
The Growth of cities
Sage Robinson
The leader of a group who destroyed train tracks by heating and melting and bending the metal rails in Atlanta, GA to make Southerners "so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it".
Anacanda Plan
A three part strategy including that the Union army would blockade Southern ports, Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy into two, and the Union army would capture Richmond, VA the Confederacy capital all in order to conquer the South.
Was the Patrons of Husbandry- a social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th Century.
Where a landowner would allow people to grow crops on his land for a share of the profit.
Abraham Lincoln
The 16th President of the US who being considered an abolitionist fulfilled his promise to end slavery by ratifying the 13th Amendment on Dec. 18th, 1865.
Ulysses S. Grant
General of the Union army who won the Civil War.
A person following the pursuits of civil life, especially one who is not an active member of the military, the police, or a belligerent.
Dred Scott
A black slave who escaped slavery and became a freeman in the North and then returned to the South and then was put back into slavery, but Dred Scott fought back saying that he was a freeman.
Conscientious Objector
A person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare.
Women's Suffrage and Susan B. Anthony
Women's Suffrage was women wanting the right to vote and Susan B. Anthony was the leader of it.
Vertical Integration
When an idustry completely controls all Gathering, Manufacturing and Distributing of a product(s)
Reasons people moved to the American West
Manifest Destiny, Gold and Transcendentalism were reasons that people moved to the American West.
Strengths of North during the Civil War
Manufacturing Capabilities, Population, Naval Power, Agricultural Capabilities, Transportation, Military Leadership and Money were the North's advantages during the Civil War.
Melting Pot
A mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs, although many immigrants did not wish to give up their culture.
Populist Party
A group of people who seeks solutions to our problems through the decentralization of power; limiting the federal government to those duties listed in the Constitution along with a strict adherence to the Bill of Rights.
Buffalo Bill
Owner of the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show starring Annie Oakley.
Merrimac and Monitor
Two Ironclad Ships who fought to a draw, but what was so significant about this battle was that they cleared the last of the wooden ships.
Crazy Horse
Was a chief of the Oglala, a band of Teton Sioux Indians who refused to let Americans just have his land.
Harriet Beacher Stowe
The author of the book Uncle Toms Cabin that persuaded people to want to end slavery.
Angel Island
The place where Asians, primarily Chinese, gained admission into the US in the San Francisco Bay is Angel Island. Between 1910 and 1940 50,000 Chinese immigrants came through here.
John Rockefeller
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
Annie Oakley
Was a famous American sharpshooter who starred in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show for over 16 years.
Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 Peace treaty at the end of WW1 that established new nations, borders and war reparations.
A British Passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat in 1915.
Horizontal Consolidation
When an idustry completely controls all Gathering, Manufacturing or Distributing of a product(s)
Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie believed that people could improve themselves through hard work. He also thought wealthy individuals should use their fortunes to aid society. He opposed charity but believed in helping others to help themselves, chiefly by providing educational opportunities.
Mustard Gas
A deadly gas that blew with the wind and attacked moist areas of your body like your eyes, armpits and groins and poisoned them so that you would die a painful death.
A strikebreaker
Ghost Dance
A Christian dance done by Native Americans which taught that God would restore the Indian world to the way it was before whites arrived.
Sherman Antitrust Act
A law enacted in 1890 that was intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade.
Triple Alliance
A group of nations during WW1 that included Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary.
Assimilation is the process through which one social and cultural group becomes part of another social and cultural group.
The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.
Sitting Bull
Was a famous medicine man and leader of the Hunkpapa band of the Teton Sioux Indians who led a sun dance in which the Indians would learn a new way to fight.
Thomas Edison
was one of the greatest inventors and industrial leaders in history. His most famous contributions include practical electric lighting, the phonograph, and improvements to the telegraph, telephone, and motion pictures. Edison also created one of the first modern research laboratories. Some scientists and historians regard his development of the research lab as his greatest achievement.
Native American Resistance
The Native Americans fighting back for their land when Whites moved West for many reasons.
Trench Warfare
Where armies would fight in trenches just for mere yards on ground. The area between trenches was known as "No Man's Land".
Social Darwinism
An economic and social philosophy supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest.
John Brown
A radical abolitionist who had 20 kids with two wives, but was leader of Harper Ferries.
13th Amendment
An amendment ratified on Dec. 18th, 1865 where slavery was abolished and ratified by Lincoln.
Mason-Dixon Line
An imaginary line that separates the North from the South and nowadays is the bottom border of PA.
A time period in US History that followed the Civil War to Reconstruct America from the deficits of the Civil War.
Ellis Island
The main immigration port from Europe to the United States, located in New York Harbor where from 1892 to 1924 an estimated 17 million immigrants passed through.
Woodrow Wilson
The President of the United States during WW1, who also devised the 14 points in which the 14th point was creating the League of Nations in which nations would talk out their differences instead of going to war with them and killing many innocent people.
Causes of the Civil War
Economic and social differences between the North and the South, having states vs. federal rights, slaves vs. non-slave proponents, the Growth of abolitionist movement and the election of President Abraham Lincoln.
Battle of Little Big Horn
Where Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills in search of gold said to be there, so the Americans made the Sioux stay in a certain area, but they didn't leading to a battle, just along the Little Big Horn River.
Emancipation Proclamation
A speech given by Abraham Lincoln on Jan. 1st, 1863 declaring that slavery was abolished everywhere behind the Confederate boundaries.
Great Plains
Is vast, dry grassland in North America. It is an important agricultural and mining region where crops were grown such as alfalfa, barley, oats, and rye and it is the world's paramount wheat growing area.
Airplanes in WW1
Airplanes were one of the newest weapons of the time and helped tremendously by giving another form of attack.

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