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APUSH vocab

MHS Mrs.Johnson 3rd 6 weeks Vocab, APUSH


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6. Second Great Awakening (part one)
Late 1970's to early 19th century, Some of the best known preachers are: Peter Cartwrite (best known Methodist "circuit rider", had a voice that lashed the devil and fists that beat those that tried to break up his revival meetings), Charles Grandison Finney (greatest of the revival preachers).
6. Second Great Awakening (part two)
It was a religious revival in America. One of the key features was the feminization of religion. It was the spark for the fire of the abolitionist crusade.
20. Dred Scott Decision
This was a decision of the Supreme Court that was crippling to the abolitionist cause. Dread Scott, a slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in free territory. He sued for freedom. The Supreme Court denied it, with the ruling that residence on free soil did not make him free. This effectively crippled all anti slavery laws in existence, because it meant that slave holders could keep their slaves in free territory.
16. Underground Railroad
In the period before the civil war, slaves that managed to escape were helped to the north by the Underground Railroad. It was a chain of safe houses that lead to the north, and slaves were guided to these safe houses by conductors, the most famous of these was the fearless Harriet Tubman, who rescued nearly 300 slaves, including her parents, during 17 forays into the South.
22. 13th Amendment
Added to the constitution on December 6, 1865, it prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude in the U.S. and anything under its jurisdiction, unless it is a punishment of the law. This finally formally freed the slaves.
25. 15th Amendment
This amendment states that a citizen of the U.S. cannot be denied the rights of his or her citizenship based on their color, race, or previous conditions of servitude.
5. American Temperance Society
1862, A society that was strongly against the consumption of alcohol. Nearly got rid of legal alcohol, for a wile anyway.
9. Oligarchy
A system of government where most of the power is in the hands of a few people, basically, rule by the upper class.
21. Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Lincoln in 1863, it freed all slaves in the territories that were considered to be in rebellion only, they did not want to risk upsetting the crucial border states, after all, Lincoln did say that he hoped to have God on his side, but he had to have Kentucky. Actually, it didn't free anyone until the war was over and all the slaves were freed anyway. But it made it legal to take slaves that they found in the South and use them for soldiers if the slaves agreed to it.
24. 14th Amendment
Stated that any person bourn within the U.S. or any area that it has jurisdiction over is a U.S. citizen, and cannot be denied the full and equal protection of the law. This was primarily to protect the freed slaves.
1. 12th Amendment
1804, This amendment states that if no presidential candidate gets a majority of the electoral votes then the House of Representatives decides among the top three.
14. Popular Sovereignty
The idea that the people of the territories and states should vote for themselves on the issue of slavery. Douglas, who was called the "little giant" and a steam engine in trousers, championed the cause of Popular Sovereignty. It appealed to both Northerners and Southerners, because then no land would be legally lost to the other cause through treaties, but whichever side lost always didn't like Popular Sovereignty as well. It probably delayed the Civil war by avoiding to much excess political turmoil, but there was political turmoil anyway, and the Civil War could not be delayed forever.
18. Kansas-Nebraska Act
Proposed by Douglas in 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska act had the Territory of Nebraska split into the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, which would both be open to popular sovereignty. Kansas would presumably become a slave state, and Nebraska would presumably become a free state. It is historically significant because it broke the deadlock between the North and South and made two territories states. To work, Douglas had to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
2. Nullification
Madison and Jefferson, late 1790's, The theory that the states should be able to nullify, or cancel, any action of the federal government within their boarders.
10. Abolitionism
Abolitionists were the people that wanted the complete and immediate destruction of slavery. But their beliefs did not make them like those that they fought for. Someone once said that the North likes the blacks as a race, but hates the individual, while the South hates the blacks as a race and likes the individual. This movement was started by the Second Great Awakening, and this issue eventually lead to the civil war. Some of the abolitionists were John Brown, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Booker T. Washington, Levi Coffin, Frederick Douglass, and Sojourner Truth
7. Declaration of Sentiments
This was introduced at Seneca Falls, New York, at the Woman's Rights Convention in 1848. It was something of a woman's Declaration of Independence, in it it said that "all men and women are created equal". Among other things it demanded the ballot for women. Some of the principle organizers were the Grimké sisters (Sarah and Angelina), Lucy Stone, and Amelia Bloomer. It was one of the first big steps to woman's rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were also important figures.
12. Manifest Destiny
The belief that America was destined to someday rule the entire continent, or at least a mighty stretch of land from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This drove Americans steadily further and further west. It started in the 1840s, and the issue dominated politics.
23. Freedman's Bureau
This was created on March 3, 1865 by Congress to educate, feed, and give freed slaves and white refugees land. It had the most success in education, where it taught 200,000 blacks how to read. But in the other departments, especially the land department, it was very sorely lacking, in both kindness and success. Very very little land made its way to black hands. Many blacks were even cajoled into singing labor contracts with their former masters. President Andrew Johnson tried multiple times to kill to Bureau, and it finally expired in 1872.
4. Cult of Domesticity
The American Wives, 1850's, a widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker, America.
11. American Anti-Slavery Society
Formed in 1833 by Garrison and his supporters in Boston, it was dedicated to eradicating slavery "root and branch". It was one of the first significant anti-slavery organizations.
13. Wilmot Proviso
This ill fated amendment that was proposed in 1846 by David Wilmot proposed to ban slavery in all territories that were to be won from Mexico. This ignited a huge controversy that would not die until drowned in the blood spilled by the civil war. Even Ralph Waldo Emerson said that Mexico would poison us. This was one of the many causes of the civil war.
17. Compromise of 1850
Proposed by Henry Clay, the North got California, the disputed territory went to New Mexico, and abolition of slave trade (but not slavery) in DC. South got New Mexico and Utah open to popular sovereignty, 10 million dollars for Texas, and better fugitive slave law.
19. Self-determination
The principle that a nation should be able to determine its own destiny. Used by the South when they seceded.
8. Transcendentalism
In the second quarter of the 19th century, America experienced this literary movement. Resulted in part in liberalizing the strait-jacket Puritan theology. Some of the famous transcendentalists were Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. This philosophy promoted individualism and self-reliance. This gave America some of its first (and some argue that they are still the best) writers and novels. They set a foundation for the culture of America.
3. Nativism
During the presidential election of 1856 an intense feeling toward a country that caused people to strongly dislike foreigners. Nativists also organized the American (Know Nothing) Party.
15. Fugitive Slave Law
This law was hated by abolitionist Northerners because this allowed the Southerners to reclaim slaves that had escaped, and often free blacks were caught and brought back to slavery also. Although only about 1,000 slaves per year out of 4,000,000 slaves total escaped, the Southerners rested on principle. But once this law was passed in 1850, Northerners resisted by not letting slave catchers use their jail cells to hold the slaves that they had caught while they looked for the rest of their charges. This was yet another aggravation that lead to the Civil War.

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