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Zebulon Pike
The first explorer to publish descriptions of the Mississippi Valley and Colorado regions.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created a court in each state specifically concerned with federal (national) laws. Also, the act states that there were to be 6 justices, or 6 judges, in the Supreme Court. The act identified the courts' powers.
Cabinet
a group of advisers chosen by the president: secretary of state, war, treasury, and attorney general.
Battle of the Thames
A battle in the War of 1812, the Americans defeated their British and Indian enemies and finally broke the British hold on the Northwest Territory.
Impressment
The British policy of kidnapping American sailors and forcing them into servitude on British Ships.
French Revolution
Revolution of the commoners seeking to fix their struggling economy. This revolution caused conflict in the U.S., as the citizens each sided with opposing opinions on the revolution.
Marbury v. Madison
Mayburry was the appointed Judge of Columbia's justice of the peace. However, secretary of State James Madison denied him the position. Mayburry brought the conflict to the courts, were it was decided that the case would be addressed by lower courts, instead of the Supreme Court. Angered by the decision, Mayburry declared the decision unconstitutional. This was the first instance of judicial review.
Treaty of Ghent
The treaty was signed December 24, 1814. it officially ended the war between England and Great Britain.
Andrew Jackson
: The general of American troops in New Orleans. He organized the troops in preparation for the impending British invasion.
Bill of Rights
A list of rights guaranteed to the citizens of the United States of America. Protects the people's rights. First 10 Amendments.
Strict Construction
The philosophy that government is limited to the specifics of the constitution. If the Constitution doesn't say anything about a proposed change, then the change is not allowed.
XYZ affair
Adams published the French demands and replaced each of the requests with X, Y, and Z. Americans rallied and created the slogan "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute." The government responded with threats of war.
Loose Construction
If the constitution does not specifically address or forbid something, the something is allowed.
Anthony Wayne
Revolutionary War hero who led a force of 3000 soldiers in retaliation to Little Turtle's previous victory.
Little Turtle
Miami chief Michikinikwa. He was a gifted strategist and defeated U.S. forces in a battle along the Wabash River. Originally dispute started over American settlement in the Northwest Territories.
Hartford Convention
Members of the New England colony were extremely angry at the war. This anger was so great that New England threatened succession from America. This convention was held to decide if a succession was necessary. The majority of the convention voted against it.
Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord
The foreign minister of France, Maurice sent 3 French diplomats to the United States. These diplomats requested that the United States apologize for anti-French remarks President Adams had made. Also, they requested a multimillion dollar loan. The diplomats offered 250,000 dollars as compensation.
Twelfth Ammendment
Passed in 1804, the Twelfth Amendment made it so presidential candidates and vice presidential candidates are on separate voting ballots. Made in response to Jefferson-Burr ties.
Battle of New Orleans
The battle occurred on January 8th, 1815. The American troops easily emerged victorious, while the British suffered heavy casualties.
Touissant-Louverture
Leader of the slave rebellion of Hispaniola. Under his leadership, the slaves eventually took control of the entire island. Touissant-Louverture was a natural strategist, slave, and grandson of an African chief.
Pickney's Treaty
Treaty between Spain and the U.S. created because of the enemy status of the two countries and close proximity to one another. This treaty stated that the border betweent he U.S. and Florida was the 31st parallel and gave the U.S. right of deposit.
Edmond Genet
A French diplomat, Edmond Genet toured America. He hoped to convince the Americans to respect their military alliance with France.
Orders in Council
An act passed by Great Britain in 1807 which disallowed neutral ships from trading with France or entering French ports.
Dolley Madison
The wife of James Madison, Dolley Madison was born in 1768. In 1814, shortly before the British Invasion of Washington, she escaped with the Gilbert Stuart's portrait of George Washington.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle on November 7, 1811 against Tecumseh's Indian confederation. American troops emerged victorious, but sustained heavy casualties.
Louisiana Purchase
America's fifteen million dollar buyout of Louisiana from the French. America bought it in order to create a port at the mouth of the Mississippi. Napoleon had no use for the land because he had no western empire.
Non-Intercourse Act
Due to the plummeting values of the American trade economy, congress passed this act. It allowed trade with every country, except Britain and France.
Treaty of Grenville
United States gained Indian lands, modern day Ohio and some of Indiana. The Indians received 20,000 dollars worth of goods as compensation.
John Jay
John Jay was sent to Britain by President Washington in hopes of negotiating peaceful terms between America and Britain. Britain did not stop their seizing of ships and arming of Indians and, as result, Americans thought John jay had sold out.
Bank of the United States
Alexander Hamilton's proposed National Bank. The bank would have multiple branches in the major cities of the U.S. Hamilton thought the bank would provide a safe place for governmental deposits. The bank was capable of making loans to the government.
John Marshall
Appointed Chief Justice of the United States by President Adams, John Marshall created numerous important principles, such as judicial review.
Sectionalism
Loyalty to a part or region of the country, a trend that emerged with political parties specific to new England federalists and Southern anti federalists.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Created in order to protect the U.S. from external forces and weaken the Republican party. Gave the President the ability to imprison or expel all and any foreigners from the United States.
Sacagewea
: The Shoshone Indian guide of Lewis and Clark. Her help was infinitely important. Sacagewea provided the explorers with invaluable survival techniques and advice.
Aaron Burr
Republican candidate in 1800 election with republican Jefferson. Tied in electoral college and then house. Alexander Hamilton pursuaded several house members to vote for Jefferson. He was amoral.
William Henry Harrison
Commander of the troops enlisted along the Tippecanoe River in Indiana to combat the Indian rebellion.
Embargo Act
An act passed by President Jefferson in 1807, it forbade foreign trade.
Capitalism
an economic system in which competition between private companies and industries dictates prices and wages.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Took place in present day Toldedo, Ohio. Battle between Little Turtle and Anthony Wayne's forces. Anthony Wayne, the American side, emerged victorious.
Whiskey Rebellion
A rebellion in respone to a federal tax on whisky that especially hurt western farmers. Challenged federal authority. Washington gathered militia to fight the riot, which was soon after easily suppressed.
Alexander Hamilton
The secretary of the treasury. Brilliant and controversial, Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies in 1775. He was one of George Washington's most trusted advisors. Alexander Hamilton was put in charge of restoring the nation's credit. He was a strong advocate for a federal government run by the wealthiest of the country. Hamilton had little faith in the common citizen's ability to make decisions.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Abolished the Alien and Sedition Acts, declaring them unconstitutional. According to Jefferson and Madison, the acts went beyond the powers of the federal government.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Two explorers enlisted by President Jefferson to map the new territory of Louisiana. Lewis and Clark left from St.Louis in May 1804 with a crew of 45.
Right of Deposit
A right resulting from the Pinckney's treat, right of deposit allowed American's to unload goods at New Orleans without paying taxes to Spain.
Thomas Pickney
South Carolina who is responsible for Pickney's treaty.
Tecumseh
the Shawnee tribe leader, Tecumseh attempted to unify the Indian tribes in order to combat the spreading Americans.
Judicial Review
granted courts the power to review Congress' decisions and declare their actions unconstitutional.

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