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World War 2 / Post-war (by Kate)

kates terms for the last test


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Marshall plan
US enslaved European economics by helping them out after ww2. wouldn't send money to any communist countries. Related to the red scare. Centrist with catholic base. Reaction to cold war + need for stability.
Christian democratic parties
center right coalition party which had control 45 - 50s because of red scares.
Civic forum
group of dissidents + students let by havel
Imvre nagy
Hungarian leader invited back after the revolt. He was in the lead when hungary announced that they would leave the Warsaw pact. They weren't allowed. Soviet troops came in and assassinated nagy.
Treaty of Maastricht EC to EU
changed the European community to the European union
Berlin blockade
west germany and (east) berlin were allowed communication. Soviets didn't like that. Cut off train ways / roads. Afterwards, US planes 24/7 maintaining presence in west berlin. Brought them food, medicine etc. soviets backed down. Couldn't keep up defensive blockade. Lost.
highly industrialized area given to Czechoslovakia by Versailles w/ the purpose of weakening germany. 80-90% german, though. Hitler initiated the munich conference with mussolini's help because he was afraid that his men wouldn't be able to invade Czechoslovakia. The people reconfigured the boundaries to match nationalities. Took away tons of pieces of Czechoslovakia in the name of self determination.
Samizdat literature
underground movement in soviet Russia. Things banned by the soviet union. These guys were well known literary figures, so couldn't be executed. Openly critical of regime, which was problematic. Given permission to leave in Russia. Their texts were banned in Russia, but people would smuggle books in and pass them around.
The berlin wall
krenz made a speech which implied that the berlin wall which separated west and east berlin should be taken down, so they took it down. Started many fall of communism movements in other countries.
Andrew Sakharov
physicist in russia. ??????????
wanted to leave the soviet union and go to Israel / be jewish. Soviet gov refused to let them be religious. Also refused to give them visas. Began to include artists, creative people who felt stifled by the system.
Margaret thatcher
conservative prime minister (first woman) of Britain. Tax cuts for the rich. Controversial.
Cold war
no direct conflict. Proxy conflict. Between the US and Russia.
Mikhail gorbachev
caught between hardline and reform communists. Hardline communists attempted a coup. Failed. ?????????????
Helmut kohl
chancellor of east germany. In favor of unifications.
cultural / social effect of ww2. philosophy. no purpose to life.
Josip broz / tito
Marxist Leninist communist who hated stalin. Soviet forces never allowed to come in and liberate Yugoslavia. He creates his own communist authoritarian regime. Not under stalin's control.
Nazi - soviet - non - aggression pact / molotove - Ribbentrop
surprise. If germany invades Poland, soviets won't attack germany. Public announcement. Upsets everyone, even Mussolini, b/c Mussolini = ideologically pure. Secret provisiosn: soviets + germans divide up Poland + its surrounding countries. Now there's nothing to stop him from invading.
joining of germany - Austria. Failed at first because italy stood up to Hitler since Austria would be a threat to italy. The non-joining went against self-determination, but it was banned by the Versailles treaty so germany wouldn't get too strong. Eventually it was successful.
Phony war
ww2 39 - 40. hitler's break for the winter. Took northern lands for ports and to defend and attack from the sea. Defensive.
turning point of invasion of Russia. After this, Hitler begins to retreat.
Maginot line
after germans remilitarize the river bordering france, france builds a line of bunkers and trenches on the franco-german border. Ostrich mentality. They could just fly over, duh.
French lost. Had to get out. Defeated by puny nations. Not a lot of actual political turmoil, but it made them feel bad.
Vichy france
fascist authoritarian corporate puppet government after france was overtaken.
massive organization of illegal trade unions in Poland led by lech Walesa. It + the catholic church = a lot of opposition to communism in Poland. When free elections began, they won all the seats. Ended communism.
De gaulle
president of france brought back during the Algeria crisis. Gave Algeria their independence and was trusted. Head of the 5th republic in france, which had an especially strong president for a parliamentary democracy. Republic + strong leader. Student / worker demonstrations ended up leading to the collapse of his government.
soviet movement which tried to give freedom of expression.
Single Europe act
free movement
Schengen agreement
allowed immigration
Fransisco franco
spain, began active military action against spain's standing gov. started a civil war.
police force. Beat up pastor from town of timisora. Everyonewas against these police. There was fighting between the army and the police. Riots. Led to bloody fall of communism in Romania.
italy expands by taking it over. Last unclaimed African place. Italy had the most tech advanced air force. Artistic depictions. Other countries upset. League of nations stepped in.
german method of war. Waves of planes, tank attack, infantry. Tested in spain during the Spanish civil war.
Nuremberg trials
political effect of ww2. put past Nazis on trial. A part of de-nazification.
Boris yeltsin
first elected president of Russia in 1991 after fall of the soviet union. Becomes more liberal. Suspended communist party in Russia. Went out, stood on a tank, made an amazing speech. ??????????????
Velvet revolution
10 days. Czech gov didn't repress the movement. Inspired by the berlin wall falling and a violent reaction by police / riot squads against a protest.
Operation round table
official opposition to the Hungarian government. Helped lead to the fall of communism in hungary, which was a peaceful transition.
restructuring. Trying to get people involved in the government. ???????????
Red scare
cultural / social effect of ww2. afraid of communists, even those who helped put down the fascists and should be national heroes.
Egon krenz
new leader of east germany after honecker. Allowed east germans to leave for west germany. 16 million did so. Allowed free elections thinking he would win but he lost and his gov fell.
European community.
giving in to Hitler to forstall the war. Gave him more power in the long run.
Todor zhikov
controversial leader in Bulgaria. Forced to resign.
town. Hungarians were the minority, and they were discriminated against by the Romanians. Inspired the bloody revolt in Romania and the fall of communism there.
sieged. Shows perserverance of Russians. Trapped. Starved.
Lech Walesa
led solidarity in Poland
Nicolae Ceausescu
communist party leader in Romania. Had to deal with debt problems. Was really bad, so he and his wife were executed. Media coverage.
german general
meeting that Czech wasn't invited to. Hitler, Mussolini, chamberlain (br), Daladier / benes. Sold out Czechoslovakia to prevent war.
Treaty of rome -> EEC
European economic community.
Janos jaidar
liberalized hungary. Kicked out after hungary declared political pluralism. (first country to do that)
Spanish civil war
ran out of kings. Started a republic. Anarchists vs fascists. Too polarized. Russia helped the republic, germany / italy helped the fascists. Br + france didn't do anything. Republic failed because democracies wouldn't help the non-fascist effort even though many people from other places came and tried their best. Franco took over.
Daladier / benes
leader of communist party in soviet Russia. Almost as bad as stalin.
Vaclav havel
playwright who wrote banned plays, led the civic forum
trade alliance to help the people across the atlantic. Begun before the Warsaw pact. NATO vs Warsaw. Helped develop the cold war.
National salvation front
new opposition party which won elections in Romania.
Warsaw pact
not voluntary alliance to protect the soviet union. Begun after the threat of NATO. NATO vs Warsaw. Helped develop the cold war.
when you don't allow certain items to be traded. Britain and france did these against italy when it took over Ethiopia. Still gave them gas and oil even though that would have completely stopped them.
political effect of ww2.
president of Norway (which was overtaken by germany. Betrayer of the country.)
General jarulzelski
communist leader in Poland who thought he'd win the free elections, but he didn't
created an authoritarian regime in Austria. Assassinated.
cabinet in Bulgaria. Committee that supported the leader in the soviet system. There were these in a lot of communist places.
called it metropolitan france. Close colonies. Across the Mediterranean. Massive efforts at terrorist activities to make a statement. French gov responded to Algerian terrorism brutally. Call their president back, and he gives them their independence and they trust him because he has such good credentials and is such a good nationalist.
Amsterdam treaty
made a European army.
italy took over it. (rocks + goats) ended up hurting Italian factories / companies
Velvet divorce
split Czech republic and slovakia due to nationalist tensions. Both have really weak economies.
Pact of steel
strong as steel. Mussolini wanted a pact of blood. If either germany or italy decided to go to war for any reason against anyone, the other would follow. Br + fr still wouldn't do anything because thought Hitler wouldn't invade Poland because soviets would stop them.
Little entente
French alliance with Czechoslovakia.
Erich honecker
communist leader in east germany / DDR. Forced fleeing east germans to return to germany. Then he was forced out of the gov.
Jon iliescu

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