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Humanities 5 Key Terms


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John Stuart Mill (texts)
On Liberty, "On the Nature of Women"
Karl Marx (text)
The Portable Marx
Nietzsche (text)
Schopenhauer as Educator
Sigmund Freud (text)
Civilization and its Discontents
Franz Kafka (text)
"The Metamorphosis"
Geoffrey Barraclough (text)
An Introduction to Contemporary History
Hajo Holborn (text)
The Political Collapse of Europe
Hannah Arendt (text)
The Origins of Totalitarianism
Jean-Paul Satre (text)
Essays in Existentialism
Simone De Beauvoir (text)
The Second Sex
Virginia Woolf (text)
A Room of One's Own
Democratic Revolution
1789; France and United States
**First Industrial Revolution
Great Britain (and subsequent) starting in the 1780's-1840's; changed from agriculture and manual labor to machines and industry; introduced steam power; Marx saw this period as a necessary evil in order to reach socialism and eventually communism since it creates polarization between bourgeoisie and proletariat
1914 - "My country is better than your country, bitch!"; arose because of the many nation-states in Europe (Ottoman Empire disintegrated); reason for WWI; leads to Fascism (intense nationalism); was a reason that WWI occurred; Marx was critical of nationalism; after WWI it became extreme, developing into fascism and Nazism
What Marx wanted for society; the GOAL is that property and distribution are in control of the people; socialism means no capital or markets, and labor is no longer a commodity; developed further can become communism (Marx's ultimate goal)
Representative Government
Political liberalist wanted a republican government, not tyranny from king; John Stuart Mill believed people should use a representative government
Reform Bill of 1832
Reapportioned Parliament to make it fairer to industrial northern cities; made Parliament more accurately representative of the citizens of the country; gave the power of voting to those lower in the social and economic scale.
Adam Smith
defined economic liberalism and economic freedom; basically he was the guy that came up with capitalism; supported by John Stuart Mill and other Liberalists (one would only asusme); influenced Marx's writings; his ideas are noted in WEALTH OF NATIONS (1776)
Wealth of Nations
1776 by Adam Smith; describes capitalism and free markets at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution
Jeremy Bentham
1748-1832; English political radical; advocate of utilitarianism (supported by J.S. Mill); thus since he influenced Mill he also influenced the development of liberalism; one of his students was actually JS Mill's dad;
Harriet Taylor
1807-1858; women's rights advocate; had long affair with J.S. Mill (21 years) and eventually married him; she believed that women should be educated, Mill believed that legal and educational barriers should be removed for women to achieve equal independence
self-cultivation; education: cultural, worldly, internal, become a better person
individualism vs individuality
J.S. Mill was an advocate for individualism; individualism is the philosophy which emphasizes individual liberty; ism opposes authority over the will of the individual; ism supports the LIBERTY to act in one's self-interest (Mill's idea of liberalism)
**Categorical imperative
Kant's Categorical Imperative is that freedom is created through using MORALITY; a FREE society is one where people are treated as ends and are free from compulsion
Karl Marx
(1818-1883); German socialist who believes that the downfall of capitalism is inevitable and will be replaced by communism; argued that capitalism resulted in alienation;
**Feudal Society
What European life was like before Liberalism; Marx doesn't like Feudal society and admires the bourgeoisie for destroying it; ironically, Marxism is most popular in feudal societies struggling to catch up with the dramatic increases in industrialization
the laborers, lower social class, the working class; they do not have ownership of the means of production - they are alienated; they are exploited in capitalism by the capitalists/bourgeoisie; will rise up and revolt agasint the bourgeoisie, beginning modern socialism
Upper/Middle Class; owners of capital; liberalism benefits them; to Marx they were the capitalists who own the means of production; create their own destruction in the proletariat (who will rise up and revolt, beginning modern socialism)
Categorical Imperatives; If one is not moral/rational, one is not free; in other words, the only free people are those who are autonomous and rational-thinking; his idea is the opposite from that of Marx's since Kant believes that freedom is only gained once a person is alienated from their compulsions
German liberal; Everyone is related through history and education; admired the French Revolution and the modernism it brought; Believed in the culmination of the mind and development of freedom over time; everyone is free; history is rational; used freedom as an elitist definition, as a modern state of rule of law (Marx wanted to universalize it)
God is alienated human essence/nature; Humans impoverish themselves because they give up their best qualities to God; Humans makes their best essences divine.
The opposite of freedom according to the German philosopher's; the idea that one gives away one's true self, comes from the essence of the self; for Marx, alienation is separation from the means of production as well as the product; like "thingification"; keeps people on an animalistic level; Separation from: means of production, the final product, and time(wages)
An object that is only worth something if someone picks it up and uses it, Example = acorns under the tree, or a worker; alienated labor
class actor
There should not be one figure of change, the whole class needs to be taking action; the idea that class needs to be an actor; the proletariat will be the 1st class actor
**Class consciousness
In Marxist theory, refers to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests; the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class sets for them; struggle to understand the totality of the historical process; it will allow them to make progress towards socialism/communism
**Orthodox Marxism
Based on "capital"; scientific account of the logic of capitalism; the people who supported Orthodox Marxism embraced Marx's theories completely; they believed capitalist society would fall apart
pre 1914; leaders who are supposedly Marxist but are opposed to the general analysis of Marx and Engels, specifically the building of socialism and the establishment of communism
**Russian Revolution
1917; Result of WWI; symbol of the Revolutionary Socialism/Bolshevism; statesman was Lenin; GOAL: wanted a world revolution against Capitalism; supported by Revolutionary Socialists, Communists, Russia; Stalin takes over in the end
**Revolutionary Marxism
pre 1914; Revolutionary Marxists believed that socialism should be attained; thought that they SHOULD be revolutionary
**Philosophical Irrationalism
pre 1914; cultural reaction against positivism; de-emphasized the importance of the rationality of humans; art was given a high place; Nietzsche supported this
1819; Written by Schopenhauer; argues that: the nature of knowledge is the human mind; there is no reality - only appearances; the world is my will
Soren Kierkegaard
1813-1855; similar mentor to Nietzsche (like Schopenhauer); criticized Hegel; Christian existentialism; basis of existentialism
Friedrich Nietzsche
1844-1900; breakdown in 1888; German; "Ubermensch" = the "Overman/Superman" is the idea that man can become Ubermensch by his WILL TO POWER manifested: creatively in overcoming nihilism and re-evaluating/creating ideals AND destructively in the rejection/rebellion towards societal ideals and moral codes; critized the "ego" and personal consciousness; basically the process of overcoming oneself
The German Empire
1871-1918; ended after WWI, allowing Hitler to come into power
Bismark-German Chancellor
After WWI the Bismark-German Chancellor was in charge until Hitler takes over in 1933; the head of Germany, denoted by "Herr" (or Frau)
Sigmund Freud
1856-1939; Austrian; founded psychoanalysis; believed human developed is best understood in terms of sexual desire; libido; Oedipus Complex; unconscious conflicts
Scientific Philosophy that only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge; connected to naturalism; social progress is brought by scientific progress; nature is orderly
Developed by Freud; attempts to connect the unconscious parts of the mental process; includes the Oedipus Complex; the EGO - the self, always in conflict; the SUPEREGO - societies rules; the ID - desires, lust, hunger
repression battles sublimination (taking subconscious signals and translating them inside us)
**Oedipus Complex
All boy are secretly hot for their mom's and pissed off at their dad's for getting mom
sexual hunger, needy for objects of desire; part of the ID
1912-1913; Book by Freud, describes how the Oedipus complex was formed in SON; a child kills his father (the 1 dominant male), guilt ensues
1921; Freud's book about how society is a suicidal civilization; relationship of the hero to repressed masses
1920; Another book by Freud, describes the psyche and how it develops the death instinct
1927; by Freud, interprets religions origins, development, pyschoanalysis and its future
1929 by Freud; details his ideas on the nature of human sex
**Philosophical generation of 1905
Felice Bauer, Milena Jesenská, Dora Dyment, Broch, Mann, Musil, Rilke, Döblin, Hesse
**Fascist Era
1917-1945; Effect of WWI; also called National Socialism; anti-Marxism; Was a way to continue WWI; the combination of new nationalist movements + anti-marxism led to new political movements (like Musolini and Hitler); attempted to revise the Treaty of Versailles
**Diplomatic Revolution of 1905
France separated Church and State; a naval arms race broke out between Britain and Germany, leading to tensions and (partly) resulting in WWI; Russian Revolution of 1905 (Bloody Sunday)
**Triple Entente
Alliance formed in 1907 between UK, France, and Russia; along with many other secret alliances formed, tensions and suspicions soon led to WWI; after 1915 France joined and the Triple Entente was vs. the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria) in WWI
**Transition to Contemporary History
According to Barraclough, the transition to contemporary history begins with JFK in the 1960's
The World before WWI
Bismark to JFK
Period following WWI through WWII into the 1960's; according to Barraclough the period following this is contemporary history
**Geoffrey Barraclough
(1908-); Believes that contemporary history begins with JFK in the 1960's
**Hajo Holborn
(1902-1969); Diplomatic Historian
Examples include Nazi Germany and Stalin's Russia; possible only through national socialism (anti-communism + nationalism); GOAL: no stability, create concentration camps (destroys human dignity); used secret police
Martin Heidegger
Arendt's Lover and mentor; challenged phenomenology
1927 - Arendt was inspiration for Heidegger's work; investigated the concept of Being/existence; influenced existentialists, although Heidegger was not an existentialist
Opinion that supports the Jewish people having their own homeland in Israel; the modern movement was originally secular as a response to antisemitism in Europe; WWII convinced many that Jews really did need their own homeland; Kafka was interested in it
Feudal-Industrial State
Germany became a Feudal-Industrial State after it lost its emperors
**Völkison Nationalism
A larger, "better" Germany, radical folkish nationalism; idea arose around WWI and strongly influenced the Nazi party
The House of Rothschild
"Rothschild" is a house distinguished with a red sign; prominent Jewish banking and financial dynasty in Germany; this is one of the reasons Arendt argues that Jews were targets in WWII
Leon Trotsky
More likely Lenin successor; Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist; commander of the Red Army; eventually deported from the Soviet Union by Stalin (power struggle)
(1888-1938) Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual; argued for the Bolsheviks to continue the war effort; later accepted Lenin's policies, namely that socialism could be developed in a single country (thus no more arguing for revolution in other capitalist countries)
1883-1936; Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet Communist politician; worked at same time as Bukharin; helped Stalin gain power; against Trotsky; eventually executed in the Great Purge of 1936; member of the Old Bolsheviks
Objective enemies
Whoever is ____[insert common characteristic, like wearing orange]____ is an enemy; duh - it was the Jews in WWII
"Existentialism as Humanism"
1945; Phenomenology and existence; Facticity, transcendence, and bad faith
"Being & Nothingness"
1943 by Jean-Paul Satre; the beginning of existentialism; defined the consciousness as TRANSENDENCE
World Responsibility
Existentialist idea that all people have responsibility for everything that happens throughout the world; to deny this duty is to be in BAD FAITH!
Les temps modernes
1946; French magazine founded by Jean-Paul Satre and Simone de Beauvoir
Otherness; established by Emmanuel Levinas; applicable to existentialist and feminist Simone De Beauvoir who argues that women and men see women as the Other
Having life or being; occurring or present at the moment
Being FOR itself; transcendence is acting authentically in freedom; inventing oneself
**Women's Suffrage Movement
1919 - 19th Amendment = Suffrage (U.S.); Women got the vote in Britain in 1918; In France women were legally acknowledged as people in 1938; Feminism did better in Protestant countries
The being together of 2 people in a couple
**Jean-Paul Satre
(1905-1980) Beauvoir's lover and French existentialist; embraced communism; transcendence is freedom; accept responsibility
**Emmanuel Levinas
Composed the idea of the other - both positive & negative connotations
Virginia Woolf
1882-1941; British author; part feminist; suicide/depression; in A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN she argues for no sex consciousness in authors; really likes Jane Austen; a person needs $500 and a room of one's own to be able to write in peace and develop ideas; androgyny
balance of masculine and feminine qualities in the mind; Woolf suggests that these 2 sexes should be united in a person
Men at the head of the family, the dominant one; in A Room of One's Own; requires knowing that the other half is inferior
1929; in the past, women were not able to be writers; examines Austen, Bronte sisters and George Eliot; coined term "Oxbridge"'
"Subjection of Women"
John Stuart Mill: We don't know what women are capable of since we've only given them 1 job - mothers/wives; utilitarianism; individual self-reliance for all; society needs progress; pro-suffrage
Conservative Nationalism
Eventually becomes fascism; seen in WWI and 1914; statesman is Clemenceau (French); GOAL: balance of power; supported by Forces of Order, Italy, France; Legacy - Hitler and Mussolini
1905 - ¿que pasó?
1. Russia vs. Japan (1st crisis that was determined by political interaction of Euro, Asia, U.S.)
2. Europe on the verge of revolution
3. Modernism
4. There was the Diplomatic Revolution of 1905
5. Germany-Britain naval wars
6. Russian Revolution of 1905
*Bloody Sunday left thousands dead
*Tried to activate Russians into protest
*Peasant conditions were HORRIBLE
*Massive strikes in St. Petersburg
Bad faith
Being inauthentic; When one ignores when the "Being IN itself" (or facticity) conflicts with the "Being FOR itself" (transcendence)
Culture is the capacity to understand other people; understanding other cultures/historical periods
**Objective Mind
The inside of human beings put out into the world, so that we can understand the world
**1848 - ¿que pasó?
1. European Revolutions of 1848 which were violent consequences of drastic changes in Europe (industrialization)
2. Karl Marx publishes THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO
3. Irish Potato Famine (bad conditions throughout the UK and Europe)
hostility towards the Jews during WWII, propagated by Hitler and the German Nazi party; 6 million European Jews were murdered
Authoritarianism is when the people must have strict to the authority of the state which maintains and enforces social control through oppressive means; totalitarianism is one form of authoritarianism although different in that it uses concentration camps and secret police to maintain instability and diminish the humanity in humans; authoritarian regimes do not attempt to control the economy nor the private lives of the people as does totalitarianism
**May riots, 1968
When a general strike broke out across France; eventually was discouraged by the French Communist Party and suppressed by the government; significant in that it was purely popular uprising, superseding ethnic, cultural, age, and class boundaries
**Vichy France
The Vichy regime in France from 1940-1944 during Nazi Germany's occupation, based at Vichy; denomination of France, became a Nazi puppet state; was counterrevolutionary; Petain (leader) instantly created anti-Semetic laws; was fully recognized by the U.S.
A resistance movement is a non-military group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an invader to a country; there were a lot of resistance groups during WWII
**Popular Front
A broad coalition of different political groupings; in the 1930's the Communist Parties (comintern) were willing to ally themselves with anyone else against the Fascists; this strategy is supported by Trotsky

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