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World History Vocab Final

Terms

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Reincarnation
the idea that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Satrap/satrapy
a governor with both civil and military duties in the ancient Persian Empire, which was divided into satrapies, or provinces, each administered by a satrap
Sufism
form that Islamic belief that called for mystical relationship between Allah and human beings
Hellenic
the period associated with the Golden Age of Greece, reaching a high point under Pericles; the center of the Hellenic age was Athens
Centuriate Assembly
the most important popular assembly during the Roman Republic; responsible electing chief magistrates and approving laws
Homo-sapiens
immediate ancestors of man
Atman
the individual soul
Praetorian guard
the military unit that served as the personal bodyguard of the Roman emperors
T'ian (T'ien)
Heaven, impersonal symbol of universal order
Purdah
the Indian term for the practice among Muslims and some Hindus of isolating women and preventing them from associating with men outside the home
Theravada
"teachings of the elders," a school of Buddhism that stresses personal behavior and the quest for understanding as a means of release from the wheel of life, rather than the intercession of bodhisattvas, also known as Hinayana or the "lesser vehicle"
Sikhs
"disciples," religion founded in Punjab by Nanak, integration of parts of Hinduism and Islam
Guru
teacher
Bard
professional storyteller, in the absence of a written language the bard is very important in preserving African traditions
Confucianism
a system of thought based on the teachings of Confucius that developed into the ruling ideology of the Chinese state; pragmatic philosophy that stressed order, duty and humanity
Five Pillars
the fundamental tenants of Islam; they include belief in Allah and recognition of Muhammad as his prophet, prayer five times a day, observation of Ramadan, a pilgrimage to Mecca, and alms-giving to the poor
Homo sapiens sapiens
"wise, wise humans," 100,000 years ago, first anatomically modern humans
Zealots
militant, extremist Jewish sect that advocated the violent overthrow of Roman rule
Vizier
leader of the council who advised the caliph
White Lotus Buddhism
sect of Buddhism, looked for a "savior Buddha," backed political reform and sometimes revolt
"Equal field" system
land was allocated to farmers for life in return for an annual tax payment and three weeks of conscript labor
Raga
Indian musical scale
Eightfold path
right knowledge, right purpose, right speech, right conduct, right occupation, right effort, right awareness, right meditation
Analects
the body of writing containing conversations between Confucius and his disciples that preserves his worldly wisdom and pragmatic philosophies
Daoism
school of thought associated with legendary Lao Tzu; stressed inaction, living spontaneously, and letting nature take its course
Caste system
a system of rigid social hierarchy in which all members of that society are assigned by birth to specific "ranks," and inherit specific roles and privileges
Khanates
four divisions of the Mongol world - Chaghadai, Persia, Kipchak (Golden Horde), and Yuan dynasty in China
Zanj
Arabic term for east Africa, mixed African-Arabic culture
Mesolithic Age
the period from 10,000 to 7000 B.C.E., characterized by a gradual transition from a food-gathering/hunting economy to a food-producing economy
Reincarnation
the idea that the individual soul is reborn in a different from after death
Sanskrit
holy language of India
Nirvana
in Buddhist thought, enlightenment, the ultimate transcendence from the illusion of the material world, release from the wheel of life
Gamelan
orchestra composed of percussion instruments
Polygyny/polygamy
the state or practice of having more than one wife at a time
Sheikh
ruling member of a Bedouin tribe
Stoicism
a philosophy founded by Zeno in the fourth century B.C.E. that taught that happiness could be obtained by accepting one's lot and living in harmony with the will of God, thereby achieving inner peace
Natural rights
certain inalienable rights to which all people are entitled, include the right to life, liberty, and property, freedom of speech and religion, and equality before the law
Parsis
Persian Zoroastrians who fled to India, they became a major economic force in Mumbai (Bombay)
Plebeians
the class of Roman citizens who included non-patrician landowners, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmer in the Roman Republic
Pantheism
belief in a single creator god from whom all things come
Homo habilis
"handy human," earliest tool-making hominid
Untouchables
the lowest level of Indian society, technically outside the caste system and considered less than human
Hieroglyphics
a highly pictorial system of writing most often associated with ancient Egypt
Bantus
Western African peoples whose migration through Africa spread languages and iron-making
Well-field System
peasant families farmed outer plots for themselves and inner plots for their landlords
Imperium
"the right to command"; in the Roman Republic the chief executive officers possessed the imperium
Arthasastra
an early Indian political treatise that sets forth many fundamental aspects of the relationship of rulers and their subjects
Nuclear family
a family group consisting only of father, mother, and children
Polytheism
having many gods, belief in or the worship of more than one god
Bhakti
devotion, central concept in evolution of Hinduism, belief that religious devotion brought the possibility of improving one's karma
Kshatriaya
warrior caste
Theme
Byzantine administrative unit
Analects
the body of writing containing conversations between Confucius and his disciples that preserves his worldly wisdom and pragmatic philosophies
"Good Emperors"
the five emperors who ruled from 96 to 180 a period of peace and prosperity for the Roman Empire.
Hundred Schools
in China around the third century B.C.E., a wide ranging debate over the nature of human beings, society, and the universe.
Vaisya
"commoner," merchant caste
Five relations
son subordinate to father, wife to husband, younger brother to older brother, all to emperor, friend to friend
Yi Jing (I Ching)
ancient Chinese manual for foretelling the future by interpreting the "laws of nature"
Ulama
a convocation of leading Muslim scholars
Neanderthals
Homo sapiens, in Germany, relied on a variety of stone tools and first early people to bury their dead
Bedouin
nomadic peoples of northern Arabia
Auxiliaries
troops enlisted from the subject peoples of the Roman Empire to supplement the regular legions composed of Roman citizens
Varna
Indian classes or castes
Mahayana
a school of Buddhism that promotes the ideas of universal salvation through the intercession of bodhisattvas, predominant in north Asia.
Khitan
northern nomadic peoples, threat to Tang
Sitar
stringed instrument
Ephors
Athenian group of five men who were responsible for supervising education of youth and the conduct of all citizens
Kampongs
Malay villages
Pax Romana
"Roman Peace," period of peace and stability during the first and second centuries C.E.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese concept, emperors ruled through the approval of heaven, insured order in universe
Sultan
leader of the Seljuk Turks, means "holder of power"
Corpus Iuris Civilis
"Body of Civil Law," Justinian's codification of Roman law
Prakit
common tongue of India, as compared to Sanskrit spoken by priestly class and scholars
Emir
commander
Hinduism
the main religion in India, it emphasizes reincarnation, based on the results of a previous life, and the desirability of escaping this cycle.
Sati
the Hindu ritual requiring a wife to throw herself upon her deceased husband's funeral pyre
Brahmins
priestly caste
Patricians
great landowners who became the ruling class in the Roman Republic
Jati
system of extended families, basic social unit, in theory each jati was assigned a particular form of economic activity
Islam
monotheistic faith given shape by Muhammad, in the tradition of Judaism and Christianity, term means "submission"
Gerousia
Athenian council of elders
Hegira
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622, which marks the first date on the official calendar of Islam
Consuls
the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic
Genghis Khan
term meaning "universal ruler," title associated with nomadic Mongol conqueror Temuchin
Dharma
the law
Hellenistic
literally "to imitate the Greeks", the era after the death of Alexander the Great when Greek culture spread into the Near East and blended with the culture of that region; the center of this age was Alexandria in Egypt
Scholar-gentry
rising land-owning gentry class in China, prized education
Rig Veda
a collection of sacred rituals and instructions; written down after the Aryans arrived in India.
Manichaeanism
religion popular in western China, offshoot of ancient Zoroastrianism with some Christian influence
Coloni
free tenant farmers who worked as sharecroppers on the large estates of the Roman Empire
Swahili
a mixed African-Arabian culture that developed by the twelfth century along the east coast of Africa
Polytheistic/polytheism
having many gods, belief in or the worship of more than one god
Pharaoh
"great house," Egyptian kings, considered to be divine
Essences
Jewish sect that awaited the Messiah who would deliver the Jews from oppression
Mansa
west African title for a local chieftain, as in Mansa Musa
Fasces
an Etruscan symbol for rule, adopted by the Romans, an axe surrounded by a bundle of rods
Epicureanism
a philosophy founded by Epicurus in the fourth century B.C.E. that taught that happiness could be achieved through the pursuit of pleasure
Oligarchy
governmental structure characterized by rule by the few
Socratic method
a form of teaching that uses a question-and-answer format to enable students to reach conclusions by using their own reasoning
Spartan
highly disciplined, concept comes from the austere, dedicated lifestyle of the ancient Spartans
Bodhi
Buddhist wisdom
Zakat
giving alms to the poor, one of the Five Pillars
Raja
a chieftain of an Aryan tribe
Cuneiform
"wedge-shaped". A system of writing developed by the Sumerians that consisted of wedge-shaped impressions made by a reed stylus on clay tablets.
Jainism
founded by Mahavira; required an extreme rejection of the reality of the material world
Paterfamilias
the dominant male in a Roman family whose powers over his wife and children were theoretically unlimited, though they were sometimes circumvented in practice
Yin
primary force of dark and female, represented by moon, balanced by yang
Middle Path
Buddhist path of moderation, avoidance of extremes of vulgar materialism or a life of self-torture
Dao
the "Way", ancient Chinese concept important in Confucianism, Daoism and other schools thought; expressed as a model for human behavior but also on a more mystic universal level
Megalith
"large stone," an outstanding feature of late Neolithic Europe. Stone circles have been found in Britain, northwestern France, Scandinavia, and on the islands Corsica, Sardinia, and Malta.
Hominids
first proto-humans
Zhou classics
classics of early Chinese history that remained foundation, included Book of Odes, Book of History
Nuclear family
a family group consisting only of father, mother, and children
Divination
the practice of seeking to foretell future events by interpreting divine signs, which could appear in various forms
Nirvana
in Buddhist thought, enlightenment, the ultimate transcendence from the illusion of the material world
Ka
Egyptian spiritual body
Muezzin
means "crier," person who calls faithful to worship five times a day from the minaret of a mosque
Eucharist
a Christian sacrament in which consecrated bread and wine are consumed in celebration of Jesus' Last Supper, also called the Lord's Supper or communion
Hoplites
heavily armed infantry soldiers used in ancient Greece in a phalanx formation
Foot binding
procedure that bent and compressed the feet of young girls in China
Varna
Indian classes or castes, term also appeared in Southeast Asia
Iconoclasm
opponent of icons, powerful movement in, among other places, Byzantium
Moon
Indian Ocean, blows from southwest in summer and northeast in winter
Uighars
Turkic-speaking people, dominated parts of Silk Road, threat to Tang
Principate
the form of government established by Augustus for the Roman Empire
Yang
Chinese foundational concept, male and light, balanced by yin
Tyrant/tyranny
in ancient Greek polis, a ruler who came to power in an unconstitutional way and ruled without being subject to the law
Matrilinear
lineage traced through the female line, as compared to patrilinear, common in some parts of Africa
Caliph
the secular leader of the Islamic community, developed in period after the death of Muhammad
Civil service examination
an elaborate Chinese system of selecting bureaucrats on merit
Wayang kulit
Southeast Asian shadow puppet play
Mihrab
niche in the wall of a moque facing Mecca
Nirvana
Buddha's view of metaphysical reality, release from passion and thus the endless cycle of rebirth
Apella
Athenian assembly of all male citizens
Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhist sect, stressed role of devotion
Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution
the shift from hunting animals and gathering plants for sustenance to producing food by systematic agriculture that occurred gradually between 10000 and 4000 B.C.E.
Mastabas
Egyptian rectangular structures with flat roofs, tombs for pharaoh's noble officials
Monotheism
having only one god, the doctrine or belief that there is only one god
Jihad
in Islam, "striving in the way of the Lord," sometimes translated as "holy war"
Civil Service Examination
Exams that Chinese bureaucrats passed to serve in state, based on Confucian concepts, Han origins
Shi'ites
smaller of two main sects of Islam, drawn from the Arabidc phrase shi'at Ali ("partisans of Ali"), believe that leadership should come from the line of Ali
Latifundia
large landed estates in the Roman Empire
Arete
Greek concept, it represented the excellence befitting a hero and it was won through struggle
Berbers
pastoral people of north Africa, played a key role in trans-Saharan trade
Coptic Christianity
Egyptian form of Christianity, popular in Ethiopia, focused on single nature of Jesus
Dharma
in Hinduism and Buddhism, the law that governs the universe, and specifically human behavior
Filial piety
all members of family to subordinate their personal needs and desires to the patriarchal head
al-Maghrib
Arabic term for "the west"
Theocracy
government by a divine authority
Ziggurat
a massive stepped tower upon which a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city was built
Zimbabwe
"sacred house," influential south African society, constructed Great Zimbabwe
Senate/senators
the leading council of the Roman Republic, composed of about 300 men who served life and dominated much of the political life of the Republic
Eunuchs
males whose testicles have been removed; important in Chinese bureaucracy
Legalism
a Chinese philosophy that argued that human beings were by nature evil and would follow the correct path only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff punishments.
Gopuras
great towers, found in India
Oligarchy
rule by a few
Sunni
larger of two main sects of Islam, translated as "orthodox," leadership drawn from any true believer
Nok culture
in northern Nigeria, one of he most active early iron-working societies in Africa, artifacts from which date back as far as 500 B.C.E.
Homo sapiens
"wise humans," as early as 250,000 years ago
Al-Ardulas
Arabic name for Spain
Liberal arts
the seven areas of study that formed the basis of education in medieval and early modern Europe
Hinduism
the main religion in India, it emphasizes reincarnation, based on the results of the previous life, and the desirability of escaping the cycle
Shari'a
Islamic law code
Neo-Confucianism
the dominant ideology of China during the second millennium C.E., it combined the metaphysical speculations of Buddhism and Daoism with the pragmatic Confucian approach to society, maintaining that the world is real, not illusory, and that fulfillment comes from participation not withdrawal.
Hominids
humanlike creatures
Council of the Plebes
popular assembly for plebeians; created in 471 B.C.E.
Karma
one rebirth in a next life is determined by one's karma, sum of activities as compared to standard of dharma
Diwan
council responsible for advising the caliph
Polis
an ancient Greek city-state encompassing both an urban area and its surrounding countryside
Helots
serfs in ancient Sparta, who were permanently bound to the land that they worked for their Spartan masters
Sophists
wandering scholars and professional teachers in ancient Greece who stressed the importance of rhetoric and tended toward skepticism and relativism
Khoisan
southern African language group characterized by the use of "clicking" sounds
Neolithic Age
"New Stone Age," mastery of agriculture, humans become food producers
Dictator
in the Roman Republic, an official granted unlimited power to run the state for a short period of time, usually six months, during an emergency
Umma
the Muslim community as a whole
School of Mind
Chinese philosophy associated with thought of Wang Yangming, disagreed with Neo-Confucians, knowledge was intuitive, mind and body a single unit
Bhagavad Gita
classical sacred text of Indian; includes key philosophical tenants such as reincarnation.
Sati
the Hindu ritual requiring a wife to throw herself upon her deceased husband's funeral pyre
Civilization
a complex culture in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements including: an urban focus, a complex social and political structure, economic and material complexity, distinct religious structures, the development of writing, and artistic and intellectual activity.
Rhetoric
the art of persuasive oratory, valued greatly by the ancient Greeks
Dao
the "Way"
Maharajas
"great rajas," Aryan kings
Yin
Chinese foundational concept, female and dark, balanced by yang
Caste system
a system of rigid social hierarchy in which all members of that society are assigned by birth to specific "ranks," and inherit specific roles and privileges
Phalanx
a rectangular formation of tightly massed infantry soldiers
Homo erectus
more advanced human form, 1.8 million years ago, made use of larger and more varied tools
Lineage group
extended family unit or clan, key to African social system
Nada
physical vibrations of music, related to Indian spiritual world
Imam
Islamic religious leader
Majils
council of elders responsible for selecting the sheikh
Diocese
the area under the jurisdiction of a Christian bishop, based originally on Roman administration districts
Ramadan
holy month of Islam, one of the Five Pillars, Muslims fast during the daylight hours
Mystery religions
offered individuals salvation and eternal life through initiation and union with a savior god or goddess
Paleolithic Age
"Old Stone Age," the period of human history when humans used simple stone tools, food gatherers
Nirvana
in Buddhist thought, enlightenment, the ultimate transcendence from the illusion of the material world, release from the wheel of life
State Confucianism
the integration of Legalist practices and Confucian doctrine
Qur'an (Koran)
holy book of Islam, believed to contain the revelations of Allah as given to Muhammad, means "recitation"
Bodhisattvas
in some schools of Buddhism, individuals who have achieved enlightenment but, because of their great compassion, have chosen to renounce Nirvana and to remain on earth in spirit form to help all human beings achieve release from reincarnation
Twice-borns
Brayminds, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas
Pantheism
a doctrine that equates God with the universe and all that is in it
Hadith
collected sayings of the prophet Muhammad
Yang
primary force of light and male, represented by sun, balanced by yin
Sudras
great bulk of Indian population, everyone below the "twice-borns"
Australopithecines
"southern ape-men," earliest human-like creatures, three to four million years ago
Stateless societies
characterized by autonomous villages organized by clans and ruled by local chieftains
Syncretism
the combining of different forms of belief or practice

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