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Test 1; Semester 2


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Carnegie steel king; integrated every phase of his steel-making operation. Ships, railroads, ect. pioneered "Vertical Integration" ; his goal was to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production and eliminating the middle man
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller Rockefeller was a man who started from meager beginnings and eventually created an oil empire. In Ohio in 1870 he organized the Standard Oil Company. By 1877 he controlled 95% of all of the refineries in the United States. It achieved important economies both home and abroad by it's large scale methods of production and distribution. He also organized the trust and started the Horizontal Merger.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Cornelius Vanderbilt He founded Vanderbilt University in Tenn. He was a big man with little education but he established a shipping-land transit across Nicaragua after the gold rush. He built a railway that connected New York to Chicago in 1873. He offered superior service at low rates and was extremely successful.
J. Pierpont Morgan
J. Pierpont Morgan: When national depression struck a number of railroads in 1893, Morgan refinanced their debts and built an intersystem alliance by purchasing blocks of stock in the world of competing railroads. He also marketed U.S. government securities on a massive scale.
Vertical Integration
Vertical Integration It was pioneered by tycoon Andrew Carnegie. It is when you combine into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. This makes supplies more reliable and improved efficiency. It controlled the quality of the product at all stages of production.
Horizontal Integration
Horizontal Integration A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 1890: Fearing that the trusts would stamp out all competition, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, which outlawed trusts and other restraints of trade. Violators were fined up to five thousand dollars and one year in prison. The Sherman Antitrust act failed to define either trust or restraint of trade clearly. As a result, between 1890 and 1904, the government prosecuted only eighteen antitrust suits, and it was instead used to hinder the efforts of labor unions who acted "in restraint of trade.
KNIGHTS OF LABOR, URIAH STEPHENS, TERRENCE POWDERLY: The Knights of labor dreamed of a national labor movement. This organization was founded in Philadelphia in 1869, and was led by Uriah Stephens, who was also the head of the Garment Cutters of Philadelphia. They welcomed all wage earners, and demanded equal pay for women, an end to child and convict labor, and cooperative employer-employee ownership. In their organization, they excluded bankers, lawyers, professional gambler, and liquor dealers
SOCIAL GOSPEL: It was a Protestant liberal movement led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch that applied Christian principles to the numerous social problems that affected the late 19th century United States as a result of industrialization. The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism. In 1908 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America adopted a social creed that called for many improvements in society.
American Protective Association
American Protective Association: Founded by Henry F. Bowers, this was a secret anti-Catholic society founded in 1887, in Clinton Iowa. The panic of 1893 greatly increased its membership, and it supported the Republican Party until it split over the question of whether or not to support William McKinley. It died in 1911.
William James
a philosopher on Harvard faculty, wrote Principles of Psychology, The Will of to Believe, Varieties of Religious Experience, and Pragmatism; 1842-1910: Helped to express philosophy of the nation.
Pragmatism: Developed by William James and Charles Sanders Pierce, it is a philosophical doctrine stating that the test of the truth of a proposition is its practical utility, the effect of an idea is more important than its origin, and the purpose of thought is to guide action.
Anthony Comstock
Anthony Comstock: Comstock was a reformer, who helped organize the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1873, of which he became secretary. He was also influential in the passage by Congress of the 1873 law concerned with obscenity in the U.S. mails. It became known as the Comstock Law.
Chinese Exclusion Law
Chinese Exclusion Law, 1882: Passed by Congress, it was one of three laws that attempted to solve the increasing immigration problem. There had also been increasing labor violence against the Chinese. By this law, immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S.
ELECTION OF 1896, CANDIDATES, ISSUES: The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake.
Florence Kelley
A lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. Served as a general secretary of the National Consumers League. Led the women of Hull House into a successful lobby in 1893 for an Illinois antisweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor. A leader in women's activism and social reform.
Mary Baker Eddy
She founded the Church of Christ(Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness. (No need for a doctor, if have enough faith can heal self). Wrote a widely purchased book, "Science and Health with a key to the Scriptures".
Charles Darwin
An English Naturalists who wrote the Origin of the Species in 1859. His theory stated that in nature the strongest of a species survive, the weaker animals died out leaving only the stronger of the species. Through this process of natural selection the entire species improved.
Henry George
He was a journalist-author and an original thinker. he saw poverty at its worst in India and wrote the classic Progress and Poverty. this book in 1879 broke into the best-seller lists. he believed that the pressure of a growing population with a fixed supply of land pushed up property values.
Horatio Alger
a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. Alger was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; the famous "rags to riches" theme.
Mark Twain
He was America's most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the "Gilded Age". The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.
Carrie Chapman Catt
She was a leader of the women's suffrage movement. She was not successful in accomplishing her goal, but she did spark a movement that would eventually lead to women's right to vote.
Philanthropy is when wealthy millionaires give back some of the money they have earned to benefit society. The money would be sent to benefit the libraries, the arts, and the colleges. An example of two of the most famous philanthropists would be Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller.
New Immigration
Between the 1850's and 1880's, more than 5 million immigrants cascaded into America from the "mother continent." Starting in the 1880's, the "new immigrants" (mainly Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles) came swarming into the USA. This influx of different nationalities caused problems at first, because they all spoke different languages and practiced different religions. They later; however, helped provide the unique cultural diversity that still exists today in the USA.
Settlement House
a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.
In 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species which dealt with the idea of evolution, an idea that strictly conflicted with the literal interpretation of the Bible. This idea was called Darwinism and those who believed in it were called Modernists. They were disgraced by the church but as time went by more liberal thinkers were able to reconcile Darwinism and Christianity.
Chautauqua movement
Chautauqua movement helped benefit adults in education. This movement was launched in 1874 on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, in New York. The organizers achieved success through nationwide public lectures, often held in tents and featuring well-known speakers, including Mark Twain. In addition, there were extensive Chautauqua courses of home study, for which 100,000 persons enrolled in 1892 alone. This movement contributed to the development of American faith in formal education.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Women's Christian Temperance Union organized in 1874 and the white ribbon was the symbol of purity; led by Frances E. Willlard; the league was for prohibition; 1919 the 18th Amendment was passed for national prohibition-was only a temporary solution
Eighteenth Amendment
Eighteenth Amendment In 1919 this amendment did away with all Liquor, making it illegal.
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull

One of the leaders of the Sioux tribe. He was a medicine man " as wily as he was influential." He became a prominent Indian leader during the Sioux Was from 1876-1877.( The war was touched off when a group of miners rushed into the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1875.) The well-armed warriors at first proved to be a superior force. During Custer's Last Stand in 1876, Sitting Bull was " making medicine" while another Indian, Crazy Horse, led the Sioux. When more whites arrived at the Battle of Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull and the other Sioux we forced into Canada. The Sioux will return later and lead the "Ghost Dance" revival.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Mary Elizabeth Lease

Mary Lease became well known during the early 1890's for her actions as a speaker for the populist party. She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.
Sioux Wars
Sioux Wars

The Sioux Wars lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians wre led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer's forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.

Geronimo, the leader of the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man, who was trying to force the Apaches off of their land. Geronimo had an enormous hatred for the whites. He was, however, eventually pushed into Mexico where he surrendered
Battle of Wounded Knee
Battle of Wounded Knee

A group of white Christian reformist tried to bring Christian beliefs on to the Indians. Fearing the Ghost Dance American troops were called to go with the reformist. While camped outside of an Indain reservation a gun was fired and the troops stormed the resevation killing Indian men women and children.
Comstock Lode
Comstock Lode

In 1859, A great amount of gold and silver was discovered in Nevada. The "fifty-niners" rushed to Nevada in their own hopes of getting rich, which caused Nevada to become a state. It provided threee electoral votes for President Lincoln.
Homestead Act
Homestead Act

This law, passed in 1862, stated that a settler could acquire up to 160 acres of land and pay a minimal fee of $30.00 just for living on it for five years and settling it. A settler could acquire it for only six months and pay $1.25 an acre. This was important because previously land was being sold for profit and now it was basically being given away. About half a million families took advantage of this offer. Unfortunately, it was often too good to be true and the land was ravaged by drought and hard to cultivate.
Farmers' Alliance
Farmers' Alliance

This was the first "national" organization of the farmers, which led to the creation of the Populist party. The Farmers' Alliance sponsored social gatherings, were active in politics, organized cooperatives, and fought

against the dominance of the railroads and manufacturers.

A political group which began to emerge in 1891. They gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political unfairness. They used a progressive platform. James B. Weaver ran as their presidential candidate in 1892. They had an impressive voter turnout. They were also known as the People's Party.
Coxey's Army, 1894
Coxey's Army, 1894: This was actually a band of unemployed people who marched to Washington DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey, a quarry operator. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements, which would create work for the unemployed.
Pullman Strike
Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union and Eugene V. Debs led a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. President Grover Cleveland interfered and stopped the strike by saying that they had interfered with the right of the government to maintain the uninterrupted transport of mail. Debs was arrested and the strike was broken up.
Granger Laws
Granger Laws

During the late 1800's an organization of farmers, called the Grange, strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These laws that were passed, but eventually reversed, are referred to as the Granger Laws.

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