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Modern Chinese History-Exam 1 Book by Spence


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Qing (Chi'ing) Period
The Qing dynasty was the last dynasty of China. Mandate of Heaven was important here, as well ass the Forbidden City and Summer Palace.
Manzhou (Manchu)
The Manchu took mongol wives but eventually take on all Han customs and wives. Developed Mandarin language. They're very similar to the Han in fatures. They were the dominate race during the Qing dynasty. They conquered China twice and are also known as the Jurchen tribe.
92% of the population in China (19% of the whole world).
Manchu men's hairstyle that consisted of a high shaved forehead and a long braid down the back; originally developed to keep long hair out of the face in battle. By Manchu decree issued by Dorgon in 164, all Chinese men had to adopt the hairstyle upon risk of execution. Anti-Manchu activists cut off their braid and eventually the opposition grew too large to maintain the edict.
Mandate of Heaven
Similar to the European monarchy system, the Qianglong Emperor encouraged this system-Inplace since the Zhou dynasty. The purpose is to lower the chance of rebellion in the event of a need for a successor. Traces lineage through the male line.
Started by Confucius or Kongzi (his chinese name). Technically believed to be a philosophy, not a religion. Complex system of ethics, with emphasis on Ritual, Relationships, and Filial Piety.
Daoism (Taoism)
Believed in as a Chinese folk religion, created as a reaction to violent times. Encourages people to seek harmony with nature through a simple life and meditation. It was embraced by Emperors wanting to get rid of Buddhism. Like Buddhism, there are multiple gods, a monastic life, and eight key principles.
Legalism (Realism)
This was a philosophy that started before Confucianism and provides the basic social order. Include Fa (law), Shu(method), and Shi(power). Fa means that laws are equaly applied and transparent. Shu means that Emperor may hide the motives to prevent people from working on favoritism. Shu means the position of ruler, not the individual, holds power.
Ying-Yang Dualism
For each action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Examination System
This system was set up in the 600s to get ride of patronage and strengthen the king. There could be no favoritism (like our civil service exam). The problem was that only people with money could afford the education needed to do well on the exam.
The Four Classes
1. Gentry
2. Peasants
3. Artisans
4. Merchants (they often had plenty of money but no status-they only generate intangible goods).
Foot Binding
Generally not as large a problem as many feeling. Manchu did not practice it.
Language developed by the Manchu during the Qing period.
Emperor Kang Xi (K'ang-hsi)
(ruled 1736-1795)
He had the longest reigns. Worked on Grand canal etc.
Emperor before Qianglong
Heshen (Ho-Shen)
A Eunich who became a favorite of Qianlong. He was given much power and because the Guardian of the Gate. If you wanted to see the Emperor, you had to go through Heshen. Took many bribes and tributes.
Gangzhou (Canton)
Major southern city in the Pearl River delta. Captial of the Guangdon province. Sight of the Canton system. Conviently as farm south as you can get from Beijing.
Canton System
Isolationist practice during the 1800s that limited where outsiders could travel and trade in China. Explains the strategic importance of Hong Kong.
The Thirteen Hongs
Area at the head of the Pearl River in Canton where Westerners were allowed to work. Hongs=Foreign business men who ran the warf area. The 1st western hospital opened here.
Summer Palace
Built by Qianlong in Beijing
Dominated by the Longevity Hill and Lunming Lake.
Has a giant marble flatboat "floating" in the lake.
Forbidden City

Imperial Palace
Imperial palace during the Ming and Qing a museum.
Located directly to the north of Tianemen Square.
"Dream of the Red Chamber"
One of the masterpieces of Chinese fiction.
So-called erotic novel by Cao Zhan.
British East Indian Company
The largest company in the world at the time. So large that even the Queen and parliament couldn't control it. They had a monopoly on tea, saltpeter, and opium. Contributed to the opium addiction in China and the First Opium War.
Started Triangular Trade!!
Tributary System
Providing an expensive gift to the emperor to win favor. Essentially a large bribe. Practiced by many tribes/states throughout history (old Europe, Native Americans, etc.)
The act of prostrating oneself in front of the emperor. Seen as bad by the Europeans, who refused to do it.
Father Matteo Ricci
Missionary who used his knowledge of eclipses to freak out the Chinese. He assisted the Europeans in access to beneficial trade agreements.
Lord McCartney Mission
Wants to set up an Embassy but Heshen demands better presents and kowtow-ing. Lord McCartney says screw off...we're too good for that. Heshen almost kicks out the British, but the Emperor steps in just in time.
Sheds light on Heshen's insane control over the government.
Amherst Mission
Wouldn't kowtow!!
Leader of the second British diplomatic mission to China. In 1816 he attempted to meet with the Jiaqin emperor, but due to misunderstandings in protocol, his mission was refused.
Lord Napier Mission
Lord Napier's mission was to supervise the role of the British East India Company ships in China's opium struggle. When working with the Chinese government, he refused to follow their kowtowing and tributary system.
Commissioner Lin Zexu
(lin Tsehshu)
Petitions Queen Vitoria to stop the trade of Triangular Trade. He tries to pass a law to stop import/use of opium. British East India company tells Queen and Lin Zexu to screw off.
Opium War
British ships fire on China.
Results are that Britain gets Hong Kong, most favored nation status, and extraterritoriality. Plus 5 major ports get opened to the British AND China has to pay for the destroyed opium.
Treaty of Nanking
Most important treaty settlement of Chinese history, signed by the British and the Qing governments to end the Opium Wars. It's 12 articles included the opening of five ports, aboloition og the Cohong monopoly, etc.
Most Favored Nation
Britain gets to set their own trading rules and tariffs. Obviously, they'll choose to benefits themselves.
British citizens in China live under British law. Leads to much abuse by the British.
Unequal Treaty System
The British get all the good stuff and the Chinese get screwed.
Treaty of Wanghsia (1844)
This treaty supplies the US the same benefits that other treaties got the UK. US citizens aren't allowed to trade opium, but they do get most favored nation and extraterritoriality.
~~Major Chinese resentment.
Arrow War
(Second Opium War)
(Anglo-French War)
Concludes with the Treaty of Tietsin

British and french take control of Canton and Tianjin.
Arrow Affair
British boat that had been seized by the Chinese fires on and kills French missionaries...all while flying a british flag.
Treaty of Tientsin
These ended the first part of the Second Opium war. France, UK, Russia, and the United States were the parties involved. These treaties opened eleven more Chinese ports (see Treaty of Nanjing) to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium.
Peking Conventions
Treaty between Britain and China, negotiated between Lord Elgin and Prince Gong after British troops entered Peking, razed the Summer Palace, and forced the Qing court to flee to Jehol. In addition to reconfirming the terms of the Treaty of Tianjin, the convention stipulated the ceding of the Kowloon peninsula to Hon Kong, the opening of Tianjin as a treaty port and the payment of an additional 8 million taels in indemnity to Britain.
Western Businesses
British and western businesses expand heavily into China, causing the use of Coolie labor.
Chinese word for low level cheap labor/workers.
Christian Missionary Efforts
(Great Peace)
Treaty of Tianjin allowed for Christianity by preventing China's isolationist policies.
Missionaries believed that the Chinese were superstitious. Some believed the Opium Wars to be God's retribution.
Rice Christians
Christian converts from third world nations
Taiping Rebellion
Led by Hong Xichun, a military and social movement that south to overthrow the Qing and establish a heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace in China. With a combination of quasi-Christian beliefs and communal vision, the Taiping narmies spread northeat through the middle Yangzi valley from their base in rural Guangxi province. They made Nanjing their capital for 11 years. They were finally defeated in Qing counterattacks spearheaded by the Xiang provincial army led by Zeng Goufan. 20 million chinese died in the 13 rebellion years
Hong Xichuan
Leader of the Taiping Rebellion and Member of the Hakka (subgroup of the Han)
Met with Christian missionaries and later had a nervous breakdown...believed he was Jesus' younger brother
Starts the God Worshipers Society.
God Worshipers Society
Part of the Nianjing Rebellion.
Nian (Nien) Rebellion
Led by Zhang Luoxing, a guerrilla war fought mostly by impoverished peasants against the Qing in the area north of the Huai River. Defeated by the local Huai Army under the leadership of Li Hong, protege of Zeng Guofan, the general who had suppressed the Taiping Rebellion.
Panthay Rebellion
(Du Wenxiu Qiyi)
was a separatist movement of the Hui people and Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.
Tongzhi Restoration
Period from the late 1860s to the late 1870s named after the Tongzhi reign of this time, during which the Qing attempted to revitalize the government and the nation through a combination of Confucian morality and Western technology.
Self Strengthening Movement
This is the main theme of the Tonzhi Restoration. Must use foreign languages, mathematics and science in schools.
"Chinese learning for substance (ti), Western learning for use (yong)"
Part of Zhang Zhidong's progressive leadership in the self strengthening movement.
Zeng Goufan
(Tseng Kuo-fan)
Founded the Hunan Army as his home base and advocated modern technology.
This army puts down the Taiping Rebellion.
Zuo Zongtang
(Tso Tsung-t'ang)
Founded the Fuzhou Shipyard and military academies.
Stifles the Muslim religion in the Northwest.
Fuzhou Shipyard
(est. 1886)
First modern factory to produce modern ships in China.
Li Hongzhang
(Li Hung-chang)
Most important and powerful person in the 1890s. He establishes the Huai (Anwei) Army
Started the Jiangnan (Kiangnan) Arsenal in 1865 in Shanghai. This was a training school and educational program.
Rong Hong Mission
(Yung Wing)
A study mission to the West to bring Western knowledge to China
Rong Hong (the person)
Advocate for change and modernization.
Qing Emperors
Xian Feng
Tong Zhi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Prince Kung Ch'in-wang
Sino-French War
French already have colonies in Southeast Asia
Smaller French troops win the conflict
Sino-Japanese War
Japanese fight for control of Korea. Troops escalate hostilities on both sides.
Japan, 1/25 the size of China beats the Chinese and Korean forces badly
Korea is surrendered to Japan.
Treat of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Maguan
Liadung Peninsula granted to japan.
Russia, Germany, and France tell Japan to give it back of they'll take it by force.
Scramble for Concessions
"Cutting up the melon"...leades to the Treaty of Shimonoseki
Open Door Policy
US sect. of state John Hay proposes that colonization isn't necessary is as long as other countries maintain and open door to trade.
Hundred Days Reform
Three month period during which Kang Youwei and his supporters influenced Emperor Guanxu to issue edicts on political and economic reform. Ended when Cixi staged a Coup, imprisoning the emperor and executing six reformers, including Kang Youwei's younger bro.
Kang Youwei
Confucian scholar, influential in late Qing reform movements, who held that economic and political modernization could take place within a Confucian political and moral framework. His plans for reform were supported by Emperor Guanxu in the Hundred Days Reforms.
Boxer Rebellion
Anti-Christian, anti-foreign peasant uprising that originated in norther Shangdong and ended with the siege of the foreign legation in Peking. Participants were mostly poor peasants who practiced a type of martial art that gave the name "boxer" to the movement. The uprising ended when a combined Western military expedition entered Peking, forcing the empress dowager Cixi and her court to flee to Xi'an.
Oberlin College//Eva Jane Price
Yuan Shikai
Most progressive and energetic leader.
Leader of the powerful Beiyang (North China) army, initially loyal to the empress dowager Cixi, later instrumental in arranging the abdiction of the Qing in 1912. Because of Yuan's military strength, Sun Yat-sen offered Yuan the presidency of the new republic. Yuan abused the office purging the Parliament and proclaiming himself emperor in 1915. He died six months later.
Late Qing Reforms

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