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Test 3 Broadcasting


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Strong Lead-in
Starting a day part with a strong program to retain audience for the fallowing program
Lead out
Attracts audience to the program preceding it
Hot switiching
seamless commercial free transitions from one show to the other
Scheduling episodes of a seris at the same time every weekday. Most syndicated 30 min. off network programs are scheduled this way like Jeopardy. It runs every weekday at 6:30 pm on cable channel 4 (Louisville)
Block Programming
Scheduling programs of similar appeal throughout the daypart ie Monday night football on ABC all comedy shows on CBS movie night on NBC etc
Scheduling a questionable program in between two strong programs
Counter programming
attracting audience to one’s station by offering programs different from those of competition
Audience Flow
Movement of viewed or listeners from one program to another p241. The idea is to build audience numbers.
Scheduling a program that overlaps the start time of a competing show (used by cable networks only)
Repeat the movie or the program through the 24 hour daypart (use by cable networks only)
Frequently interrupting regular programming with heavily promoted specials
Most Tv sports are produced by production companies specializing in television sports
Network news
rely on their own staffs for news footage but do accept news footage from pool feeds: sometimes it unsafe to go in
group a whole bunch of channels together by program genre
Before the mid-90s
most network prime time programs were provided by outside major hollywood studios (paramount or twentieth centry Fox) and independent producers (MTM,Spelling,Cannell) p237
Least objectionable program: viewers will always watch something, even if reduced to this program philosophy
Appointment television
Like NFL football no matter where or when it is scheduled, viewers will follow it and plan for it
The selecting and scheduling of programs designed to appeal to certain subsets of the mass audience
- the strategy of choosing the right program to appeal to that subset
Term describing the age range and gender audience
provide a profile of lifestyle and interests in various demographics
Parsimony Principle
Parsimony means miserly or excessive economics) So, in programming it means using material as sparingly as possible, repeating it as often as possible or sharing it to reduce costs
Off network syndicated program
Former network program now offered to individual on a syndicated basis (Seinfeld or cheers)
shows abailable for purchase
First- run syndication
Programs designed for syndication only and never to be seen on a broadcast network (wheel of fortune or jeopardy)
Syndicator ships tapes to station A which airs it and then send it to station B etc.
Syndex requires each cable system to make sure that syndicated show is run exclusively without competition
the networks could not own syndicated program it was reapealed in 1991
Barter syndication
When the syndicator sells all of the commercials in a national show (mutual of Omaha’s “wild kingdom” ) With stations receiving it free with no commercial time to sell
Day Parts
Television days is broken down into early early morning, early morning, morning
(multiple system operators) p176 This mean that they own multiple cable operations
Vertical integration
Vertical integration is where you do business with yourself.
Means that they own the film companies and the Cable network
Telephone companies are not big players but they essentially can enter the television arena. They have fiber optic lines
1992 Cable Act
requires cable operators to offer subscribers a basic service tier
Cooperative advertising when local agencies share with a national company (Goodyear shares local advertisers with national Goodyear
National Spot
When national advertisers have network commercials for certain parts of the united states etc.
Network advertising
they run all across the nation at the same time in every time zone
Investment, Profit and Loss
Stations can sell for two and half times the stations annual gross revenue of 8-10 times its cash flow; You buy the potential of the Television station.
TV stations have whole lot network commercials you clip the final commercials to put in your own commercials
Double Billing
If you bill an advertisers for less time then they actually paid for
giving money under the table to plug a concert or a certain song; Its illegal to undisclosed the act
Cigarettes, liquor and casinos
for the protection of children they will not push hard liquors on Air
Program length commercial
this was deregulated; it’s Ok as long as they are not aimed at children
FTC involvement
Gets involved into False Advertising; this is the Federal Trade Commission
Government Regulations of Advertising
Requires reasonable recognizable differences between Radio/TV commercials and programs- The main difference is the Fade to black which separates program from commercials
Logs and Proof of Performance
It has to be placed on a log; This proves that the commercials ran; Its is a legal document
Advertising Agency
they buy time, design add campaigns and creates commercial and conduct research.
Unwired Networks
Alternate way of selling national spot ads A certain company buys up all the spots and sells them for profit
National Sales Reps
they rep your station to the national networks
Per Inquiry
the advertiser pays a fee on a number of phone calls you get on a commercial
In TV you don’t make any money but you don’t lose any money
You can by a number of commercials for cheaper
You get a specific time unless someone else pays more money for the same time
Run of Schedule; or BTA Best Time Available; its less expensive because your not guaranteed a specific time
Cost per thousand- M is the roman numeral for thousand; allows advertisers to observe cost of different media
Advertising Volume
Newspapers when the total volumes
established in order to allow a commercial experiment; p215 Temprary commission on alternative financing-model that didn’t last
Ford Foundation
enabled education TV to survive its first decade Annenburd donated $150 million to ETV
TV guide guy who donated 150 million to keep Educational TV alive during its first decade
Coporation for public programming
Station program cooperative
Educational or public radio
20 channels at eh low end of the Fm Band
- Federal trade commission; determines if advertising is totally inaccurate
interactiv cable did not work
Wireless cable or MMDS
multichannel multipoint distribution channel
TV act of 1972
imposed must carry “they must carry the local signal
Master Attena seperates signal
when there are more than one cable operation in one area
O & O
Owned and operated by the cable networks
Carnegie Commission Report of 1967
recommended that the government supports non-commercial radio
National Public Radio; most stations are not member's because it cost a good deal of money; WKYU-FM pays NPR for its program
provdiding ad time for a company that supports a non-profit; it doesn't look like standard commercial

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