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1920's - 1980's


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What made its first widespread debut in WWII ?
Tanks & Airplanes made first widespread warfare debut
Allies sent 42 million men to fight
over 22 million were killed
Decade of great change in U.S.: called Roaring 20Â’s / Jazz Age / Golden Era, Age of gangsters / prohibition.
A Flapper
A young liberated woman
Margaret Sanger
introduced the birth control pill
Red Scare
Communist revolution took place in Russia during W.W.I. - After war: fear of communism in U.S., Attorney General A Mitchell Palmers launches investigations of immigrants, Dies out as a result of not much public support, Approx 250 immigrants deported during this time
Launches investigations of immigrants after "Red Scare"
Attorney General A Mitchell Palmers.
Black Sox Scandal
8 members of Chicago White Sox team throw World Series due to mob payments
Sacco & Vanzetti
Results due to red scare: 2 immigrants wrongly accused of murder, both were electrocuted, after, after deaths, FBI launches investigation – Vanzetti was found not guilty however questions regarding Sacco could not clear him
Scopes Trial
a.k.a. Scopes Monkey Trial, John T Scopes, a substitute teacher – teaches evolution to students which was against state law, Whole lawsuit revolves around teaching evolution v.s. creationism – Held in Dayton, TN -Clarrence Darrow is the defense attorney. William Jennings Bryan – consultant to prosecution. Everyone was waiting for face off between Darrow and Bryan – Bryan slips up on stand. Scopes was guilty of teaching evolution – fined $100.00
Two main Attorneys in the Scopes Trial.
Clarrence Darrow is the defense attorney. William Jennings Bryan – consultant to prosecution.
18th Amendment and the power behind it.
Prohibition – Volstead Act
21st Amendment
Ends Prohibition
Two Exceptions to the 18th Amendment
1.Religious 2.Medical
Prohibition caused an increase inÂ…
Crime, Illness, Death
Al Capone
Most Famous Mobster, made money in money laundering, drug trafficking, extortion, blackmail, prostitution. The press really liked him.
Elliot Ness
Leader of the Untouchables – FBI special team.
Tax Evasion
Crime that took Al Capone down.
Henry Ford
Automobile and the Assembly line
Orville and Wilbur
Invented the Airplane, Kittyhawk N.C.
“Wright Flyer”
First Airplane 12-second flight
Charles Lindenburg
1st to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean – “Spirit of St. Louis”
“Spirit of St. Louis”
Charles LindenburgÂ’s airplane. Took 33hrs and 39min. NY to Paris
Amelia Earhart
First Women to fly across Pacific – Disappears
1st “Talkie” movie
“The Jazz Singer”
1920 President
Warren G. Harding (Term marked by corruption)
Teapot Dome Scandal
Over Federal Reserve Oil, Charles Denby and Albert Fall, Sec of Navy and Interior.
Edward Dohoney and Harry Sinclair
Teapot Dome ScandalÂ’s business men initiated scandal
1920's Considered best Secretary of State.
Charles Evans Hughes
Washington Naval Conference
“Shining light” of Harding’s term. Tried to stop WWII before the “thought” came. The conference was for a treaty over “Naval Arms Limitations” - Many treaties were signed.
Calvin Coolidge
Becomes president after Harding dies. 1924 re-elected into office. “Silent Cal” Restored “Confidence” to the presidency.
Kellog-Briand Pact of 1924
“Pact of Peace”, U.S. and France signed to keep the peace. Outlawed warfare.
Election 1928
R- Herbert Hoover, D-Alfred Smith, 1st Election to use the Radio. Hoover sounded more "presidential."
Alfred E. Smith
1st Roman Catholic to run. Country thought the Pope would “run” the country.
Black Tuesday
Oct 29, 1929 – Stock Market Crash
Reconstruction Finance Corp.
RFC – tried to funnel money through businesses, insurance, labor unions to get money into the hands of the people. ---To help “jumpstart” the economy.
Hoover Dam
Dam created between Nevada+Arizona. A source for Government Jobs. Everyone “flocked” to the area – creating “Shantyvilles/Hoovervilles” – Homeless people.
Bonus Army
WWI veterans were promised a bonus before the depression, marched on Washington to protest (Set up Shantyvilles). Gen. McArthur called out Army with bayonets, tanks, tear gas – killed babies.
Five Power Naval Treaty
Signed – US, GB, Japan, France, Italy. Arms limitations treaty. Japan violated it.
Events that led up to the Great Depression
Events that led up to the depression include: Stock market crash, buying on credit, over production by industries and farmers, no trade with Europe –they are already in depression, Farmers move to cities, Bank “runs”, revenue tax cut – before depression. Increase in: death, crime, and prostitution.
HooverÂ’s attitude during the depression times?
Government is to do nothing.
1932 President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Dem) + Dem Congress.
New Deal
FDR’s platform during the first 4yrs. New Deal – Three R’s: Recovery, Reform, Relief.
Recovery, Reform, Relief
Three RÂ’s of FDRÂ’s platform
Bank Holiday
Gave banks one week off to get a chance to reorganize and to stop the “bank runs.” – All gold to be cashed in. Stabilizes the economy.
Special Session of Congress
“100 Days of Congress” – most of the New deal was passed during this time.
Glass-Steagall Act
Created the FDIC (and the SEC?)
Securities Exchange Commision – The “watch dog” of the stock market.
Triple “C”
Civilian Conservation Corporation. Men 18-24yrs put to work. Run by the Army. Plant trees, pay $1/day.
Tennessee Valley Authority. Put people to work on dams (Tenn River). Built 20 Dams. Brought electricity/power to Tennessee area.
Workers Progress Administration. Anyone that didn’t fit in the “Triple C” or “TVA”. Built houses, roads, schools. Built 125,000 public bldgs, 65,000 roads, 75,000 bridges.
Triple A
Agriculture Adjustment Act. Government subsidizing to farmers. Later, Supreme Court=Unconst.
National Industrial Recovery Act
Suspended all Anti-trust acts. In exchange, companies had to deal fairly with labor unions. **Ended Child Labor
Wagner Act
National Labor Relations. Mediate between Union and Company. Most Recent - Maj. League Baseball. Created CIO – Congress of Industrial Organization.
Court Packing Plan
FDR attempt to pack the supreme court with his own people. Allows FDR to appoint 1 new judge (max 6) for every sitting judge 70yrs of age/older with at least 10yrs of service. Went from 9 to 15 judges.
John Maynard Keynes
British Economist promoted deficit spending and government intervention.
Adolf Hitler
Rules Germany – Dictator
“Winds of War”
Beginnings of WWII
Three big dictators
Hitler – Germany, Mussolini – Italy, Stalin – Soviet Union.
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
US, GB, Russia, France
U.S.’s response to the growing “war” in Europe?
Isolationism. Pass Neutrality Acts.
Neutrality Acts
Laws passed to isolate Trade, Travel, Banking.
September 1, 1939
Official Start of WWII. Germany invaded Poland.
USS Panay
Attacked by Japanese- Ship shot in Chinese waters.
Cash and Carry
Europe could come to the US and get supplies but they must pay cash.
Destroyers for Bases Deal
England can have 50 ships from US, but US gets 7 bases in return.
Land-Lease Act
Britain has run out of money. US start letting Britain borrow/ “lending” supplies. US nickname “Arsenal of Democracy”
Election 1940
FDR – First president to get a 3rd Term
Atlantic Charter
A metting with England’s leaders. Decided if America gets in war, 1- will fight a European war first. 2- Create an organization to take the place of the League of Nations – U.N.
USS Reuban James
Sunk by a U-boat, lost 100 men. Happened right before Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor
Dec 7, 1941. “Day that will live in infamy” – US is now a part of WWII.
Operation Torch
Invasion into North Africa –Successful retaking. Eisenhower and Patton –2 Generals in Charge.
Eisenhower and Patton –2 Generals in Charge of what operation?
Operation Torch – retaking of North Africa
Operation Husky
Invasion into Italy – General Patton (Mussolini caught and put in jail).
Operation Avalanche
Fight to keep Italy – Massive Battle fought until the end of the war. General Mark Clark in charge.
Operation Overlord
Invasion into Normandy France. AKA “D-Day”. June 6, 1944. Code name for beaches Omaha and Utah.
Omaha and Utah codenames
Code name for beaches in Normandy France.
“Turning point of war for Germany”
D-Day, after this day they were on the defensive.
“Battle of the Bulge”
Fight for a “Crossroads”. Germans last trying attempt to break through the Americans. Didn’t work – only created a bulge.
Election of 1944
FDR elected for a 4th term. Died and (VP)Harry Truman became president.
VE Day
May 2, 1945. “Victory Europe”
Pacific Theater- Japanese had most of the Pacific islands. Fight over the Philippines: Who was in charge?
Douglas McArthur
Bataan Death March
20,000 POW Marched 500miles into “camps” 500-600 died along the way.
Jimmy Doolittle
General in charge of the raid on Japan – from aircraft carrier. B-25 bombers to bomb Tokyo. Strategically not worth anything – but morale went up in the U.S.
Battle at Coral Sea
Partial turning point of war. “Draw” between US and Japan. First time US “stopped” Japan.
Battle of Midway
Broke the Japanese code. “Blew away” Japanese fleet. Turning point -Japan went on the defensive.
Island Hopping
Strategy to “hop” islands, not to conquer every one.
Iwo Jima
Location of Marine memorial – Raising the Flag. Mount “Sere Boji” – Wanted this area for an airfield.
Manhattan Project
Top secret plans for the A-bomb.
Dr. Robert Oppenhiemer
In charge of the Manhattan Project. “I am the destroyer of worlds”
Paul Tibbits
Pilot of the B29 bomber “Enola Gay” that dropped the 1st A-bomb in Hiroshima.
Charles Sweeny
Pilot of the B29 bomber “Boc’x Car” that dropped the 2nd A-bomb in Nagasaki.
USS Missouri
Japan formally surrendered on this ship in Tokyo Bay.
September 1, 1939 – September 1, 1945
Official Start and End dates of WWII.
Victory Japan, Sept 1, 1945.
Description of the 1950Â’s
Age of Prosperity. People are happy. War and depression are over. Economic Boom for 20yrs. Increase in Labor. Increase in Consumerism. “Baby Boomers”
GI Bill
“Service Readjustment Act” –Official name. To send veterans to school. Industries can not absorb all of the veterans returning from WWII. 2mill – College 3.5 mill- Tech Schools. 700,000 Farming schools. Congress spent 14.5 Billion to fund program. Ended in 1956.
Baby Boomer
Population expansion after the war.
Results of the GI Bill
A shift from “Blue Collar” workers to “White Collar” – managers etc. “White Flight” – mostly white men.
Marshall Plan
The plan to rebuild Europe. Named after PattonÂ’s Sect. of State. The plan was to make sure the government was stabalized enough so that communism would not spread.
United Nations created in 1945. HDQTRS in NY in a building donated by Rockefeller.
Nuremberg Trials
Trials for War Crimes of the Nazis.
Major Overseers of the Nuremberg Trials
US. GB. France. Russia. 22 on trial. 19-guilty. 12-death penelty.
Nuremberg Trials – 3 Violations
1.Waging an aggressive war. 2.Breaking the Established rules of war. 3.Crimes against Humanity.
Berlin Airlift
Russia has blocked the Eastern side of Berlin. US uses Cargo planes to get in and out of area. Used to for food and supplies. Ran 24hrs/day
Containment Doctrine
How to deal with Russia. Stop the spread of communism. George F. Kennan – State Dept’s idea.
Truman Doctrine
Containment Doctrine but more specific. Gave money to Turkey and Greece to help the economy. To stop the spread of communism.
National Security Act
Congress passed to re-organize the government to deal with the Cold War.
List 4 things created out of the National Security Act.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Created to “protect each other”
RussiaÂ’s version of NATO?
Warsaw Pact (Countries were forced into agreement)
Joseph McCarthy
Saw Communism in everything. Created “Committee of Un-American Activities”. Started “witch trials” in Hollywood.
Rosenburg Trial
Selling the A-Bomb plans to the Russians. Convicted of Treason and sentenced to death. Electrocution.
Hydrogen Bomb
1952 Marshall Island, Bikini Atoll. 100x more powerful then the A-Bomb.
Korean War
1st Cold War – 1950 N.Korea invades South to make it Communism. 1st real test of “containment”. 1st time troops will be needed for “containment” UN is also being tested because S.Korea is a member.
Inchon Landing
Amphibian attack in Korea. To relieve pressure in Pusan.
1952 Election
Dwight Eisenhower with Richard Nixon(VP).
Checkers Speech
Nixon’s TV speech about the family dog. About illegal campaign contribution. To “clear” his name.
Jackie Robinson
Breaks the “color line” in Major Leauge Baseball .Brooklyn Dodgers –owner Branche Ricky.
Rosa Parks
45yr old seamstress. Refused to give up seat on bus. Violated city transportation laws.
Takes over modern civil rights movement. Started the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Founded the SCLC.
Thurgood Marshall
Lawyer for Brown in Brown vs Board Ed. Later becomes the 1st black Supreme Court Justice.
Brown vs Board Ed.
Desegregation of schools
Brown vs Board Ed. overturned what previous ruling?
Plessy vs. Furgeson
Orville Fabas
Governor of Arkansas that went against direct order to desegregate schools.
Ho Chi Mein
Leader of the uprising (for communism) in South Vietnam.
Dien Bien Phu
Location of French Massacre in Vietnam.
1st Russian satellite in space.
U-2 Incident
Spy plan shot down over Russia Pilot was Francis Gary Powers. Begins the “Space Race”
Election 1960
JFK defeats Nixon
Peace Corps
Cold War tool. Humanitarian Org.
Berlin Wall
Symbol of the Cold War – E+W Berlin separated.
Two big parts of Cold War
Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis
Bay of Pigs
Cuban exiles are trained in Florida to “retake” Cuba. The group was called La Brigade. Unsuccessful – major embarrassment. JFK’s worst mistake. Paid Castro 53 million for the release of the Brigade.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Russia sending in missles into Cuba to be pointed at US. JFK sends Navy to blockade. Dismantle site and US looses Platt agreement.
Flexible Response
“Limited War” Bad war strategy. Used this strategy for most of the Vietnam war.
Robert McNamara
Created the idea of Flexible Response
Lee Harvey Oswald
Assassinated JFK, killed by Jack Ruby.
Election of 1964
Lyndon B Johnson
The Great Society
LBJÂ’s Platform dealt largely with Civil Rights.
24th Amendment
Abolished poll tax as prerequisite to vote
Voting Rights Act
Banned illiteracy tests
Watts Riot
Protest got out of hand. Lasted 1 week. 33 Blacks dies. 3 Whites died.(Watts is a town)
Malcom X
Advocate of violence, Nation of Islam Leader. Wanted segregation of everyone.
James Earl Ray
Assassinated MLK
Gulf of Tonkin
Congress gave the power to Pres. Johnson to “micromanage” the war.
Tet Offensive
Urban warfare. Vietnam had begun fighting in the cities. Military victory but huge discredit to Johnson politically – “He lied to us about winning”
My Lai
US soldiers can’t trust anyone anymore. Start killing everyone. Promoted by “kills”. Started rapes.
1968 Election
Hubert Humphrey (D), Bobby Kennedy (R) – Assassinated. Richard Nixon (R). Nixon won.
Timothy Leery
Berkley Professor advocating drugs – Acid
1970 President
Richard Nixon (Re-elected in 1972, Original 1968)
What did Richard Nixon do that no other president had done?
Visit with China. Tired to build “bridge” with China and Russia.
French term meaning “Relaxed Tension”
Nixon used what sport to “become friendly” with China?
Chinese past time: Ping-Pong.
SALT Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Strategy to slowly withdraw troops but to continue to supply South Vietnam. AmericanÂ’s perception of Nixon was he was trying to escalate the war.
Kent State
Anti-war demonstration at University. Killed 4 students. National Guard got “fenced in” and panicked.
End of Vietnam War
Apr 29, 1975 –US Pulls out, South falls to North. 118 billion dollars. 56,000 died.
Henry Kissinger
Sec. Of State under Nixon
Watergate Scandal
Nixon administration breaks into the Watergate hotel to steal Democratic “strategy” for election. Nixon’s crime is that he covers it up.
Pentagon Papers
JFK called for study into “Flexible Response”. The results looked very bad. Decided to keep the papers confidential. DANIEL ELSBERG sneaks the papers out to the press.
Woodward and Bernstien
Investigative reporters trying to “find someone guilty” in Watergate
Agnew (vp to Nixon)
Only one found guilty during Watergate – Illegal campaign funds (Gerald Ford is appointed VP)
Nixon Resigns, Who becomes president?
Gerald Ford – only president in history that was not elected.
Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme and Sara Jane Moore
Two women who try to assassinate Ford. (Unrelated events)
Election of 1976
Jimmy Carter elected
American Hostages in Iran
60 Hostages taken in “storm” of Embassy. Jimmy Carter couldn’t do anything right. Everything failed. Mission of helicopters crashed. (Released in 1980 when Reagan takes office).
Election of 1980
Ronald Reagan (R) Jimmy Carter(D) – Reagan wins Walter Mondale runs with Gerldine Ferraro – 1st women to run.
John W. Hinckley, Jr.
Attempted assassination on President Reagan
ReaganÂ’s Promise during campaign
End of Cold War.
Events helping Reagan win Cold War
Russia invades Afghanistan. Poland Rebellion- Russia puts down. KAL-0700-Russia shoots down.
Strategic Defense Initiative
SDI - “Star Wars”. Satellite to orbit in space – shoots down missiles. (Forces Russia to try and “keep up” with US. Russia’s economy falls)
Granada Invasion
“Operation Urgent Fury” 1983. Marxist Leader took over island. Reagan sent in Army and Marines to take back Island. (Containment)
Iran-Contra Scandal
US supported ContraÂ’s. Raised money on Black market to sell weapons. Iran was a part of this. Implicated Lt. Col. Oliver North
Sandra Day OÂ’conner
1st Women as Supreme Court Justice
Noriega (Panama)
Drug dealer. US served warrant for arrest with Army.
Allen Shepherd
1st Man in Space (1st to play golf on moon)
Mercury Project
Make sure Man gets into space. Mainly research. 1 man capsule. Total time in space 15min.
John Glenn
1st Man to orbit Earth
Gemini Project
(Past Soviet UnionÂ’s Program) Research.
Ed White
1st Man to do a space walk (During Gemini Project)
Appollo 11
1st moon landing.
Neil Armstrong
1st Man to walk on moon
The Enterprise
1st Space Shuttle
1st Space shuttle in Space
Challenger Explosion had the firstÂ….?
Sally Ride
1st Women in Space
Gary Blueford
1st African-American in Space

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