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International Relations Midterm


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having supreme power over own land
"Supremacy of authority or rule as exercised by a sovereign or sovereign state" (
infringing on sovereignty of another country
"the domination of one state over its allies" (
balance of power
basically, keep your hands to yourself, but on an int'l level
"Distribution of power in which no single nation is able to dominate or interfere with others" (
foreign policy
The diplomatic policy of a nation in its interactions with other nations.
1. A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single, often authoritarian party holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people.
2. The Marxist-Leninist version of Communist doctrine that advocates the overthrow of capitalism by the revolution of the proletariat.
1. Any of various theories or systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy.
2. The stage in Marxist-Leninist theory intermediate between capitalism and communism, in which collective ownership of the economy under the dictatorship of the proletariat has not yet been successfully achieved.
The state or policy of being neutral, especially nonparticipation in war.
An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives
monroe doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
social darwinism
1. the application of Darwinism to the study of human society
2.a theory in sociology that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority
Spanish-American war
war between Spain and the United States in 1898, as a result of which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, and Guam to the United States and abandoned all claim to Cuba, which became independent in 1902
Russo-Japanese war
Japanese victory in the war with Russia (1904-1905) gave Japan power over Korea and Manchuria
World War I
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Lenin, Vladimir Ilich
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks, leader of the Russian Revolution (1917), and first head of the USSR (1917-1924). As a communist theoretician Lenin held that workers could not develop a revolutionary consciousness without the guidance of a vanguard party and that imperialism was a particular stage of capitalist development.
Nicholas II
-last czar of Russia (1894-1917)
-reign was marked by defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), the 1905 Revolution, the court influence of the unpopular Rasputin, involvement in World War I, and governmental incompetence, -all of which helped precipitate the Revolution of 1917
-forced to abdicate
-he and family executed by the Bolsheviks
Alfred Mahan
American naval officer and historian whose written works, such as The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (1890), prompted a worldwide buildup of naval strength prior to World War I
Woodrow Wilson
-28th US prez (1913-1921)
-admin marked by WWI, introduction of prohibition
-went to Paris Peace Conference (1919)where he included the establishment of the League of Nations as a proviso of the Treaty of Versailles
-winner of the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize
-unable to convince the U.S. Senate to ratify the Treaty of Ver.
left-wing majority group of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party that adopted Lenin's theses on party organization in 1903 (communist)
-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
-est'd 12/1922 with union of Russia and other soviet republics with capital in Moscow
-in 1991 many client nations declared independence and USSR officially dissolved on 12/31/1991
Joseph Stalin
-Soviet politician
-successor of Lenin
-general secretary of Communist Party 1922-1953
-premier of USSR 1941-1953
-rule marked by execution of Trotsky (1929), purge of gov't and military, forced collectivization of agriculture, industrialization
-victorious but devastating role during WWII
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
-soviet politician
-made first secretary of Communist party in 1953
-Soviet premier 1958-1964
-thwarted Hungarian Rev on 1956
-improved country's image abroad
-deposed in 1964 for failure to establish missiles in Cuba and improve the Soviet economy
-N. Atlantic Treaty Org.
-internat'l org. created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for collective security
Mikhail Gorbachev
-Soviet politician
-general secretary of Communist party 1985-1991
-prez of USSR 1989-1991
-ushered in unprecedented glasnost and perestroika
-1990 Nobel Peace Prize
official policy of the former Soviet government emphasizing candor with regard to discussion of social problems and shortcoming
restructuring of the Soviet economy and bureaucracy beginning in the mid 1980s
World War II
war fought from 1939 to 1945, in which Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, China, and other allies defeated Germany, Italy, and Japan
after bitter civil war (1946-1949) a people's republic led by Mao Zedong was established on the mainland, and the Nationalists fled to Taiwan
(stands for People's Republic of China)
Tienanmen Square
extensive open area in central Beijing, China, where Chinese troops fired on student demonstrators and killed 2000 or more in 1989
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
policy of checking the expansion or influence of a hostile power or ideology by forming strategic alliances or supporting client states in areas of conflict or unrest
Iron Curtain
military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe (and US) from 1945 to 1990
Marshall Plan
United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952) named after George Marshall
Berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Berlin Wall
-European Union
-economic and political union est'd in 1993 by Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
expanded political scope of European Community esp in areas of foreign policy and security
provided by creation of a central European Bank and adoption of common currency (the Euro)
study of the relationship among politics and geography, demography, and economics, especially with respect to the foreign policy of a nation
-Jewish movement of 19th cent. begun by Theodor Herzl in response to growing anti-Semitism
-First Zionist Congress met in Basle, Switzerland in late 1800's
-issued Basle Programme to establish a Jewish state in Palestine
-ignored attempts by Ottoman-Turks to restrict Jewish immigration into Palestine
Balfour Declaration
document promising area of Palestine to the Jews (1917)
McMahon Agreement
document promising independence to Arabs(1916)
Historic claims to the Land
2000BC Hebrews existed there
Egyptians enslaved them
Hebrews led out by Moses
Jews reconquered land under Joshua
1000BC King David, then Solomon, ruled land and built first Jewish temple in Jerusalem
960'sBC Jews conquered by Babylonians
then exiled by Bab.'s for 70 yrs
333BC land seized by Greeks and named Palestine
167BC Jews drove Greeks out
conquered by Romans
135AD expelled by Romans
638AD Arab-Muslims conquer land
1100AD A-M's conquered by Ottoman Turks
Sykes-Picot Agreement
1916 called for British and French control of Palestine
Formation of Israel after 1948 War
British give prob of Palestine to UN after making so many silly promises
Partition plan provides Palestine split b/w Arab and Jewish states
Nation of Israel proclaimed May 14, 1948
Suex Crisis
Egypt and Israel grow suspicious of each other
Nasser wants to unite Arab nations against Israel, closes Suez Canal to Israel
Palestinian refugees in Egypt-controlled Gaza attack Israel
US and GB discover that Nasser got weapons from Soviets and withdraw aid
Nasser nat'lizes British/French owned Canal
Israel, GB and France attack Egypt but pull out b/c of world opinion
UN peacekeepers set up in Sinai
1964-Arab states set up PLO, which declares to destroy Israel
Six Day War
Nasser exples UN forces, closes Gulf of Aqaba, signs agreement w/ Jordan against Israel
Israel makes preemptive strike on Egypt--huge victory for Israel
Israel gains Gaza and Sinai from Egypt
Yom Kippur War
Egypt and Syria attack Israel on YK
almost no territory changes hands
Arabs fight well
war proves Israel not invincible
Israel become more dependant on US
Arab oil embargo placed on pro-Israeli countries
Camp David Accords
Egyptian Prez Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem in 1977
Sadat, Begin negotiate peace agreement w/ Carter as facilitator
Sinai returned to Egypt
some self-rule for Palestinians on W.Bank and Gaza
Bilateral agreement by Egyptians/Israelis
UN Resolution #242
calls for withdrawal of Israel from all occupied territories
declares right of all states in Middle East to live in peace within own recognized boundaries
Invasion of Lebanon
in 1975 Lebanon had civil war b/w Christian Philangists and Muslim Shi'ites
PLO sets up state within state in Lebanon to use as a base for attacking Israel
Israel supports Christians against PLO, Shi'ites, and Syria
Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon pushes to Beirut, pushes PLO out
Christians raid Palestinian refugee camps and murder hundreds in retaliation for assassination of Christian prez candidate
world criticizes Israel for not preventing raids
US Marines come in as peacekeepers, leave after 241 are killed
leads to rise of Hezbollah
young Palestinians throw rocks at Israelis and commit other acts of civil disobedience
Oslo Peace Accords
signed by Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin
Israel withdraws from Gaza and Jericho
Rabin, Peres, Arafat win Nobel Peace Prize
Shimon Peres, architect of Accords, becomes PM of Israel after Rabin is assassinated in 1995
Five Pillars of Islam
1. belief in Allah and Muhammed the prophet
2. prayer
3. alms giving
4. fasting
5. pilgrimage to Mecca
Founder of Islam
holy book of Islam
Islamic Holy Cities
Mecca, Medina
both in Saudi Arabia
Discovery of Oil
1908 by the British in Iran
caused formation of ALOC (Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.)
16% of income to Persians, 84% to GB
Seven Sisters
cartel formed in 1970's to fix prices and production of oil, a step towards nationalizing oil in Iran
2nd Oil Embargo
1979 oil prices jump from approx. $15/barrel to approx. $32/barrel
Iranian Revolution
Shah returns unpopular, the Ayatollah Khomeini rising in popularity, shah's nationalization of oil leads to greater disparity of wealth and he leaves, 1979 Ayatollah returns from exile and founds Islamic Republic
in Islamic Rep. all laws based on Sharia, good relationship w/ US ends,

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