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IB Biology Midterm Review


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Cell Wall
Gives shape, strength, and protection
What kind of changes are mutations?
Mutations are random changes but they have predictable frequencies.
Name the 5 kingdoms
prokaryote, protoctista, fungi, plantae, animalia
Darwin-Wallace Theory of Evolution
Natural selection, struggle for existence. Has fossil evidence to show how time has shaped changes in a species.
Intelligent Design Theory
Man was created by God. Based on religion and hypotheses, no real evidence.
Function of the small intestine
Enzymes complete the process where the end matter is absorbed by villi.
Examples of disaccharides
two glucose = maltose/ glucose + fructose = sucrose
self-replicating organelles that move to the poles of the cell and form the spindle fibers
A combination of two or more tissues which function as an integrated unit, performing one or more specific functions.
reaction that adds water to break a molecule apart
number of organisms in an ecosystem
Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Describes adaptation in terms of change in frequency of gene's alleles, can be used to calculate allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies for genes with two alleles.
(...the thing we're using to learn this stuff. lawl.) The movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
insulin regulates blood sugar
uses hydrolytic enzymes to digest macromolecules
Need for Excretion
If excess toxins, water, salts, and other wastes get built up in the system, it may cause bodily harm to the organism. The kidneys make sure this does not happen and allows for normal bodily functions to continue.
Phospholipid bilayer
phosphate group is polar and hydrophilic, on the surface of the membranes; lipid tails are hydrophobic and are inside the membrane; transmembrane proteins are embedded in the membrane; peripheral proteins are inside
unicellular, no nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, circular DNA
chromosomes arrive at poles, spindle disappears, centrioles replicate (in animal cells), nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear, chromosomes disassemble into chromatin
movement of material into a cell by engulfing it with membrane
globular proteins that catalyze reactions
assist in defense against foreign particles
Phases of Mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Seminal vesicle
releases a sugary solution to feed the sperm. mmmm.
chromosomes become visible by "supercoiling", centrioles move to opposite poles, spindles form, nucleolus becomes invisible, nuclear membrane disappears
Functions of membrane proteins
hormone binding sites , enzymes , electron carriers , channels for passive transport, pumps for active transport
Plant cell wall
main component is cellulose; allows movement of water and mineral salts; provide mechanical support and turgor
feed by ingestion
study of how organisms interact with each other and their physical environment
extra DNA; can be exchanged with other cells (conjugation); promotes variation
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
Packages proteins synthesized in the ribosome; conduit for moving things through the cell
Function of the large intestine
Absorbs water and passes the unabsorbable rest off as feces.
Function of the stomach
Digestion of proteins begins in the stomach, where the process is catalyzed by the enzyme pepsin where possible harmful bacteria are killed by the stomach's acidic condition which is also the optimum conditions for the enzyme pepsin.
Excretory Products
In plants: Oxygen. In animals: nitrogenous compounds and carbon dioxide.
How do unicellular organisms carry out all functions of life.
Unicellular organisms contain all the necessary structures required to carry out life processes as independent organisms, such as metabolism, response, homeostasis, growth, and nutrition
where mature sperm are stored, to be released in vas deferens to be part of ejaculatory fluid
cell eating
Evidence of Evolution
Biogeography (different species in different areas). Mammals show this concept. 200 million years ago, all continents were attached, 10 mil years later, they began to break apart. Mammals developed about 180 million years ago and were characterized by: constant body temperature, hair, and mammary glands.
Linear magnification of drawings
magnification = measured size of diagram ÷ actual size of object
Cultural Evolution
the accumulation of useful skills and knowledge and the discarding of harmful practices and this passed down through thousands of human generations
A discrete structure within a cell with a specific function, examples are: mitchondrion, golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole, lysosome, ribosome, centriole, and chloroplast
Differences of animal cells to plant cells
Centrioles, cholesterol (in plasma membrane), and glycogen
Cells become specialized in structure and function
Active Transport
movement of substances across membranes against a gradient using energy
uni/multi-cellular eukaryotic, can be auto/heterotrophic, live in salt/fresh water
plays a role in cellular respiration
Cell Theory
All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Schleiden/Schwann and plant/animal cells), Cells are the most basic unit of life, All cells arise from pre-existing cells, All vital functions of an organism occur within cells, Cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.
substance that cannot be broken down into different compounds
organisms of a particular habitat, such as a pond or forest, together with the physical environment
Organ System
A group of organs that specialize in a certain function together.
chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
allow for adhesion to the surface of animal cells
An integrated group of cells that share structure and are adapted to perform a similar function.
Life may have originated elsewhere and came to us from space. Does not address issue of origin of life. Little meteoric evidence.
Differences of plant cells to animal cells
Cell walls, chloroplasts, large central vacuoles, and starch granules (for storage of Carbs)
atom that has gained a charge by adding or losing an ion
List measures that can be taken to contain or reduce human impact on the environment
reduce deforestation, the release of CFCs, fossil fuel use, use of electricity
Formation of eggs in male reproductive system. Produces 4 gametes, constantly occuring (beginning at puberty), and variable release of gametes.
Control of water and solute levels
Formation of eggs in female reproductive system. Produces 2 gametes, forms prophase I at birth, prophase II at menstrual cycle, and completion at time of fertilization; gametes are released monthly.
2 subunits; made of protein and rRNA; does protein synthesis
Carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals of a given species that a site can support
Plasma Membrane
Regulates the flow of materials in/out of the cell
globular proteins
long chains of amino acids folded up
active site
region of enzyme surface that binds to substrate during reaction catalyzed by enzyme.
cell division
Examples of polysaccharides
cellulose, starch and glycogen
fibrous proteins
proteins in helix or pleated sheet form
Sometimes, mitosis gets out of control and a cell begins to divide and the new daughter cell begins to divide as well. Soon, this overflow of cells is called a tumor. Tumors can occur in any organ. Cancer is a disease caused by tumors.
Occurs when members migrate to a different area where geographical isolation occurs. If the migrators are unique, they could lead to a different population (founder effect). IN addition, new environmental pressures can cause directional selection which can ultimately result in new species.
G1 (cell growth and increase of organelles), S (DNA replication), G2 (preparation for mitosis)
prostate gland
releases an alkaline (high pH) solution that constitutes seminal fluid; alkaline solution helps provide the proper environment for the sperm while they're in the acidic environment of the female reproductive system.
molecules containing carbon in living systems, and often have covalent bonds
Examples of monosaccharides
glucose, fructose
Levels of taxonomy
phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, common name
Recombinant Alleles
During the process of meiosis a natural mix of genes occurs creating children who are different from both parents. These genes then fuse randomly in the process of fertilization creating unique variations. This further increases variability, crossing over reshuffles genes.
any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and place, and capable of interbreeding
They are not cells. They are simple particles consisting of DNA and RNA wrapped in a protein coat. Viruses are not considered alive because they have no metabolism and they require a host to live.
nuclear division
formed from from two amino acids in a condensation reaction
chitin in cell wall, absorb nutrients to live
chromosomes move to the equator, centromeres attach to spindle
Pre-biotic conditions of Earth
ball of molten rock and fire with a thin layer of crust. as it cooled, it began to thicken, and water formed from clouds. atmosphere contained water vapor, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. NO OXYGEN AND NO LIFE. frequent thunderstorms and lightning.
section of DNA wrapped up by eight smaller protein molecules called histones. enables DNA to be super coiled.
Digests huuuuuuuuuuuuuge molecules and contains digestive enzymes. So it eats stuff. Nomnomnom.
the environment in which an organism lives
Physical features that define humans as primates
Opposable thumbs, acute vision, large brain, two kinds of teeth.
smallest part in an element
(...another thing we're using to learn this stuff. just add water! haha.) Passive moment of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.
List the four levels of protein structure
primary (sequence of a chain of amino acids), secondary (occurs when the sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds), tertiary (occurs when certain attractions are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets), quaternary (protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain)
structure on the chromosome that holds chromatids together and attaches to spindle fibers
site of cellular respiration
Why is the surface area-to-volume ratio a factor for cell size?
A cell needs a large surface area in order to carry out metabolic functions (as chemical reactions require a surface). As a cell grows, it needs to carry out more and more reactions. Therefore, since a cell has to maintain a certain surface area to volume ratio, its size is limited.The rate of exchange of materials (nutrients/waste) and energy (heat) is a function of its surface area.Volume of a cell determines requirements while surface area determines supply.
cell drinking
reaction that links two molecules and removes a water molecule
Electron microscope advantages
higher resolution and magnification, may provide a three dimensional view
Light microscope advantages
Display color, a large field of view, easily prepared sample material, examining living material and movement, cheap
movement of material out of a cell; intracellular material is enclosed in a vesicle that moves to the plasma membrane and fuses with it, releasing the material
Golgi apparatus
system of membranes for intracellular transport; forms vesicles for exocytosis
eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, cell wall has cellulose, cells have chlorophyll
the species living together at a particular site
Facilitated diffusion
special transport proteins assist in moving material (like ions and hydrophilic molecules) across the membrane

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