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Anatomy 35 Test 2

Terms

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skeletal muscle tissue
is also known as striated muscle tissue. control: voluntary, speed of contraction: very fast, strength of contraction: high, duratiion of contraction: short. Found: whenever voluntary movement is needed.
cartilage
no blood supply, low metabolic rate, avascular, does not heal, cellular repair is impossible
Merkel's Cells
1) Are found in the Stratum Basale. 2) Function as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings. 3)Very sparce
Langerhans Cells
1) are located in the Stratum Spinosum. 2) They are epidermal macrophages that come from the bone marrow and migrate to the skin to fight infection. 3) When skin breaks, they are the first line of defense in the immune system.
reticular fibers
composed of collagen, slight elasticity (limited)
Hair
1) aka pili, are present on most skin surfaces except palms, palmar surfaces of the digits, and soles of the feet. 2) Is a flexible cylinder of fused, keratinized cells. 3) Regions: shaft (above the surface), and root (penetrates dermis and subcutaneous layer). 4) Consists of: 1. Medulla, 2. Cortex, 3. Cuticle, 4. follicle (bulb, papilla, outer root sheath, inner root sheath, matrix). 5) Arrector pili muscles attach to nerve of hair.
Dermal Glands
are composed of sebaceous, sudiferous, eccrine, apocrine, mammary, and ceruminous
erythrocytes
reb blood cells with biconcave disks, are anucleate (without a nucleus) (mature red cells throw otu their nucleus), one third of the cytoplasm is filled with hemoglobin, life span of red blood cell is 120 days (4 months)
cartilage
avascular meaning no blood supply; low metabolic rate. no intervation, no nerves, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, lacunae
Features of the haversian canals
lacuane (pockets in matrix where osteocytes reside), canaliculi (little tiny canals in the matrix from in which fingers of cytoplasm of osteocytes (desolve and absorb), lamellae (layers of the matrix), Volkmann's canals (horizontal canals that interconnect the vertical haversian canals)
FOR ANY THREE KINDS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER DESCRIBE THE MATRIX THE CELLULAR MAKEUP, AND THE LOCATION WITHIN THE ORGANISM AS WELL AS ANY SPECIAL FEATURES THAT EACH CONNECTIVE TISSUE MIGHT POSESS; INCLUDE A SKETCH OF EACH TISSUE
THE THREE TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER ARE: AREOLAR/LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, FIBROUS (WHITE) CONNECTIVE TISSUE, ELASTIC (YELLOW) CONNECTIVE TISSUE. THE MATRIX OF AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS SEMIFLUID WITH A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HYALURONIC ACID. COLLAGENOUS, ELASTIC, AND RETICULAR FIBERS ARE ALL PRESENT AND ARE LOOSELY ARRANGED IN NO PARTICULAR PATTERN, BUT RUN IN ALL DIRECTIONS AND FORM A LOOSE NETWORK IN THE INTERCELLULAR MATERIAL. THE CELLULAR MAKEUP INCLUDES FIBROBLASTS, MAST CELLS, ADIPOSE CELLS (WHICH ARE RANDOMLY SPREAD), AND MACROPHAGES. ALCT IS THE MOST WIDESPREAD CT OF THE BODY AND IS USED TO ATTACH THE SKIN TO THE UNDERLYING TISSUES. IT FORMS THE PACKAGING MATERIAL AROUND ORGANS AND SEPERATES MUSCLE GROUPS FROM EACH OTHER. AREOLAR LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS THOUGHT TO BE THE PRIMITIVE FORM OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND THAT ALL OTHER CTs ARE SPECIALIZED FORMS IN WHICH ONE OF THE THREE COMPONENTS IS DOMINANT(cells, elastic fibers, or collagenous fibers). ........MATRIX OF FIBROUS (WHITE) CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY COLLAGENOUS FIBERS LINED IN PARALLEL WAVY BUNDLES. THE CELLULAR MAKEUP INCLUDES FIBROBLASTS. IT IS FOUND WHERE HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH IS REQUIRED SUCH AS IN TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS. IT CAN BE SPECIFICALLY FOUND IN DEEP FASCIA, PERIOSTEUM, ETC. ITS FUNCTION IS TO PROVIDE STRONG FLEXIBLE SUPPORT. THE MATRIX OF ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS COMPOSED ALMOST ENTIRELY OF ELASTIC FIBERS. A FEW COLLAGENOUS FIBERS ARE ALSO PRESENT AND FIBROBLASTS ARE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT.IT IS NOT FOUND IN MANY PLACES, BUT IT CAN BE FOUND WHERE STRETCHING AND REBOUNDING IS REQUIRED, SUCH AS IN VOCAL FOLDS, SOME LIGAMENTS, AND IN WALLS OF BIG ARTERIES
Hemoglobin (HB)
1) is a human skin pigment. 2) Reddish pigment responsible for the pinkish hue of the skin. 3) Oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells.
collagenous fibers
made up of protein called collagen(white appearance/color) exteremely strong, high tensile stregth (how hard u can pull before it breaks), non elastic!! Break before they stretch but are flexible.
vascularity
degree to which blood supply is present
fibroblasts
cells that make fibers (collagenous, reticular, etc)
Free edge
distal end fo nail, part we trim off that hangs out in space.
Hypodermis
1) is the deepest of the 3 layers of skin. 2) Composed of areolar and adipose tissue with lots of blood vessels. 3) Collagenous and Elastic Fibers attach the skin to to what lies beneath.
adipose connective tissue
excellent shock absorber/mechanical insulation. matrix: almost none. cells: adipocytes which store tryglyceride molecules (fat). Is found: subcutaneous(underskin "hypodermis), abdomen (males particularly), abdominal cavity, hips (females), bone marrow, around the kidney (2 layers: paw/peri), and behind the eye. special functions: energy storage, insulation (mechanical), insulation (thermal)
Inner root sheath
is a double layer of cuboidal epithelium.
Papillary Layer
1) is one of the two layers ( top 20%) of the dermis. 2) Composed of Areolar CT containing fine Elastic Fibers, Adipose Cells, Hair Follicles, Sebaceous Glands, and Suderiferous Glands. [The collagen and elastic fibers provide strength, extensibility (ability to stretch), and elasticity ( ability to return to original shape after stretching) to skin. 3) Also consists of dermal papillae which are extensions of the dermis into the epidermis that can be seen as ridges of skin on fingertips.
Bone
most rigid of all connective material. organic components: collagenous fibers (flexible, give structural strength). inorganic ocmponents: calcium biphosphate and calcium carbonate (act as hardening agents). cells: the osteocytes lay down calcium salts and build fibers. 1. osteoblasts: build bone. 2. osteoclasts: absorb bone. found: skeleton
Epidermis
1is Keratinized. 2) Made up of Stratified Squamous Epithelium. 3) Function is to protect body against fluid loss. 4) Also protects against harmful influences frome the environment. 5) Is Avascular (contains no blood vessels) The epidermis consists of the 1.STRATUM BASALE, 2.STRATUM SPINOCUM, 3.STRATUM GRANULOSUM, 4.STRATUM LUCIDUM(only thick skin), and 5.STRATUM CORNEUM
glandular epithelium
is involved in exocrinesecretion. unicellular: single cell gland ( goblet:secretes mucus) multicellular:(acini, salivary, pancreas)
other CT
huge blood supply (ex. bone very rich supply of blood, fat-loaded with blood because it stores energy and gives up energy
Epithelium
cells of outside surfaces are rtouching each other. almost zero intercellular space. Regeneration: as long as adequate nutrition is available it is rapid and extensive.
elastic connective tissue
matrix: almost entirely elastic fibers. cells: fibroblasts, found: not many places, vocal folds, some ligaments (ligamenta flava), part of vertebral column that holds vertebrae together, and walls of big arteries *rigid connective tissue
simple cuboidal epithelium
Heigth, width, and diameter are all equal. all exocrine glands. Even secretion/absorbing something
granulocytes
grains in cytoplasm when stained
sebaceous gland
are oil glands (all of which are attached to a hair follicle(may be dormant) that secrete oil designed to keep hair flexible
Bulb
( of the hair follicle) is the rounded base.
Stratum Spinosum
1) The is the 2nd deepest layer of the epidermis. 2) Consists of 8-10 layers of Keratinocytes. 3) Contains Langerhans cells (very sparce). 4) Provides strength and flexibilith to skin. 5) In this layer, the cells becom irregularly polygonal, and are often seperated by narrow translucent clefts. These clefts are often spanned by spine-like cytoplasmic extensions of the cells (hence the name) which interconnect the cells of this layer. Cells are attached to each other by desmosomes.
extracellular matrix
everything that's between the cells. all the molecular material that fills the space between the cells. dominant stuff of tissue, ex. fat. can be thin liquid to semisolid gel
GAGs glycoaminoglycans
large neg. charge polysaccharides wil each other and trap water within tissue. determine porosity of GC
mast cells
immune system has two molecules that play a role in inflammation response. 2 molecules:1. heporin- anti 2.histamine- potent molecule causes capillaries to become leaky (blood flow increases)
lunula
composed of stratum basale and spinosum, is where nail grows, appears as small, white, and crescent shaped.
Carotene
1) is a human skin pigment. 2) Yellow to orange pigment that is most obvious in the palms and soles of the feet. 3) Attributed to vitamin A. 4) Found more frequently in adipose tissue than most other tissue.
simple ciliated columnar epithelium
H>W=D free surface of membrane has cilia. lining of ovary duct
dense irregular connective tissue
matrix: bundles of collagenous fibers; difference from regular CT is that orientation is not parallel but random. cells: fibroblasts, found: dermis (bulk of skin). encapsulating organs (forms as sheet around organs), periosteum-sheet that covers bone; stands inbetween bone and muscle, deep fascia around muscle
Melanin
1) is a human skin pigment. 2) Yellow to reddish-brown to black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors. 2) Protects the skin from UV rays. 3) Melanocytes manufacture melanin from the amino acid tyrosin with help from the enzyme tyrosinase. 4) Freckles and pigmented moles are the result of local accumulations of melanin.
Cortex
is the second layer of the hair root. It is composed of several layers of hardened flattened cells.
apocrine glands
are sweat glands that are only ofund in the axillae and pubic regions. don't function until puberty.
Outer root sheath
(of the hair follicle) is connective tissue composed of layers of fibers.
elastic cartilage
matrix predominantly elastic fibers, cells: chondrocytes. found: epiglottis, ear eustachion tubes (pressure stabilizer in ear)
Hair Follicle
extends down into the dermis and hypodermis and is composed of an internal and external epithelial root sheath.
Sudoriferous glands
are sweat glands that can be subcategorized into eccrine, apocrine, and mammary.
Stratum Basale
1) is the deepest layer of the epidermis (closest to dermis) 2) Membrane basal cells are stem cells of epidermis. 3)If this layer of skin is destroyed, new skin cannot regenerate. Consists of 1.KERATINOCYTES, 2. MERKEL'S CELLS, and 3. MELANOCYTES
neutrophil
is a type of wbc that accepts stains with a neutral ph
Nails
are modified scales composed of a free edge, body, root, lunula, eponychium, and nail bed.
megakaryocyte
pinch off little platelets- play a role in the clotting process (300,000/mm blood)
Hair Cuticle
is the third layer of the hair root. Composed of cells that are set up like shingles on a roof with lower edge covering the upper edge of the one below. Orientation of growth: Hairs grow up.
dense regular connective tissue
matrix: almost exclusively collagenous fibers lined in parallel wavy bundles. cells: fibroblasts. found: where high tensile strength is require. (ex. tendons-ligaments, muscle-bone, bone-bone), also found in aponeureses which is a sheet of connective tissue that connects muscle line left and right.
Hair Root
form inner to outer layer is composed of the medulla, cortex, cuticle, internal epithelial root sheath, external epithelial root sheath, and dermal root sheath.
elastic fibers
made up of protein called elastin (yellowish color) has low tensile strenghth, easily breaks, but highly elastic, highly flexible
Simple squamous epithelium
is a sheet of flattened cells that lines body cavities and covers organs
Reticular Layer
1) is the 2nd and deepest layer of the dermis. 2) Compose of Dense Irregular CT. 3) Contains interlacing Collagen and Elastic Fibers. 4) Is packed with oil glands, sweat gland ducts, fat, and hair follicles. 5) It provides strength, extensibility, and elasticity to skin. 6) Stretch marks are dermal tears from extreme stretching. 7) Has lines of Cleavage (lines in palms of hands to lines of stress in skin)
fibrocartilage
matrix: coarse collagenous fiber bundles in nearly parallel arrays. cells: chondrocytes are small. Lacunae are also small because they are squeezed between fibers. Found: 1. intervertebral disks, 2. symphysis pubis, 3/4. medial/lateral manisci
Stratum Corneum
1) is the most superficial layer of the epidermis. 2) Consists of 25-30 layers of flat dead cells filled with Keratin, and surrounded by lipids. 3) It is continuously shed. 4) Is barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals, and bacteria. 4) This layer can be thicker in the case of a calus.
ceruminous
are found only in the external auditory meatus (secretes ear wax) to keep membrane soft and flexible for incoming sound. too much is counter-productive.
agranulocytes
are wbc that don't have grains in the cytoplasm and include monocytes and lymphocytes
apocrine secretion
ex. milk from mammary gland, and some sweat glands, produces secretion in tiny vescicles for stimulus to release. surface membrane bulges out with vescicles then pinches off like cell division and releases cell. fragments of cell are released.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
some cells do not reach surface. respiratory free move mucus up
Body
part of the nail that we can see attached to skin
Keratinocytes
1) are cells that produce the fibrous protein keratin. are 75% of the stratum basale: divide and produce new cell that migrate to the surface. 2) Keratinization is the replacement of cell contents with the protein keratin; this occurs as cell move tho the skin surface over 2-4 weeks. 3) Are found in the Stratum Basale.
eocinophils
is a type of wbc that accepts acid stains
root
proximal part of the nail buried in the skin
Papilla
(of the hair follicle) is in the base of the bulb and is where the artery and vein gain nutrients to grow.
mucous connective tissue
is an embryonic connective tissue that is temporary. is derived from mesenchymal cells. matrix: watery/jelly
dense CT(white CT)
slight blood supply
stratified squamous epithelium
mult layers of cells with deepest later cuboidal and w/surface cells of squamous as it progresses bottom to up. Keratinized form is found in the epidermis. nonkeratinized is found in the esophagu, female urethra, etc. located in moist environments (cells will die if ddehydrated)
Medulla
is the core of the hair root. It is composed of cells with air space between them.
Stratum Granulosum
1) is the 3rd deepest layer of the epidermis 2) Consists of 3-5 layers (only one layer in thin skin) of flattened, dying cells that show signs of nuclear degeneration. 3) The cytoplasm of the cells contain numerous fine grains of Keratohylin Granules (which are not located in the membrane-bound organelles, but form "free" accumulations in the cytoplasm of the cells.
ground substance
interstitial fluuids-watery material between cells, tissue fluid makes out capillaries, glycoproteins
leukocytes
white blood cells. are composed of granulocytes and agranulocytes. lifespan: 3 days-lifetime
merocrine secretion
sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas, release the contents of vescicles
holocrine secretion
the whole of cell is released then captures and releases its contents into the lumen. (ex. sebaceous glands in the skin secrete oil)
Stratum Lucidum
1) is only present in the fingertips, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet (lucidum = transparent/clear). 2) Consists of 3-5 layers of clear, flat, dead cells. 3) Contains precursor of Keratin. 4) If this layer of skin is present, it will be the 2nd most superficial layer of skin, lying superior to the Stratum Granulosum, and deep to the Stratum Corneum.
Matrix
is the core of the medulla where meitosis takes place.
mammary glands
highly modified sweat glands that secrete milk
eponychium
cuticle, a bit of skin folded over
thrombocytes- platelets
little fragments of broken bone
transitional epithelium
is elastic. found only in the urinary system ( lines urether, bladder, urethra, kidney). Is unique! anywhere from 3-8 layers of cells thick/elastic(stetch and rebound) thickness depends on bladder distention
macrophages in CT
large eater cells in CT that are part of line of defenseagainst bacteria
Mesenchyme
1st connective tissue to appear in mesoderm in an embryo, matrix: fluid ground substance w/ just a few fibers. cells: star shaped cells. found: thru beginning wk 3 to wk 8 (end)
Dermis
1) lies deep to the Stratum Basale of the epidermis. 2) Is a layer of connective tissue composed of: (1. collagen, 2. elastic fibers, 3. fibroblasts, 4. macrophages, and 5. fat cells). 3) It contains: ( 1. hair follicles, 2. glands, 3. nerves, 4. is richly supplied with blood vessels). 4) Contains two major regions: 1. papillary layer, 2. reticular layer.
basophil
is a type of wbc that accepts stains with a basic ph
Arrector Pili muscles
smooth muscle attached to make the hair stand on end. Found in base of the bulb. Helps hair provide insulation. Origin: in the skin, Insertion: in the base of the bulb, Action: to make hair stand up.
reticular connective tissue
matrix: highly variable fibers act as stroma (framework) of various blood related organs (spleen). cells: fibroblasts and/or macrophages. found:stroma of blood-related organs (spleen, lymphnpdes, kidney)
areolar connective tissue
loose connective tissue proper. matrix: semifluid high concentration of hyaluronic acid and all three kinds of fibers are present. Types of cells present are: fibroblasts, mast cells, adipose cells (randomly spread), macrophages. Found almost everywhere, forms packaginf material around organs, weperates muscle groups from each other.
Eccrine glands
are widely distributed sweat glands that are strictly for cooling.
stratified cuboidal epithelium
found in 2-3 layers of cuboidal cells. found in very large ducts ( salivary ducts, sweat glands, mammary glands)
nail bed
all of epidermis to which the nail body is atached
Blood
fibers: yes, but fibers are dissolved. (fibrin) fibers come out of solution to form a clot. fibrin= dissolved molecules of fiber in blood plasma. cells include: erythrocytes (red cells), leukocytes (white cells), and thrombocytes.
simple columnar epithelium
Hiegth is greater than width and diameter which are equal. nuclei tend to be at bottom. secretion/absorption

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