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Anatomy and Physiology Lab Midterm


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What are the four types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, nervous and muscular tissues
What type of tissue makes up the trachea?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What is the lining of the lumen of the esophagus made of?
stratified squamous epithelium
What are the three types of muscle cells?
cardiac, smooth and skeletal
What are the striations in the longitudinal muscle section?
alternating bands of myofilaments
What are myofilaments made of?
actin and myosin
What type of muscle makes up the trachea?
circular smooth muscle
Where can you find the connective tissue on the trachea and what kind is it?
on the outer layer that looks like swiss cheese, it is cartilage
What do the cells look like of the connective tissue of the trachea? What are their function?
widely dispersed cells in a ground substance matrix, gives the tissue both strength and flexibility
What make up the ground bone and what type of tissue is it?
connective tissue, made up of Haversian canals, surrounded by alternating layers of intercellular matrix and cells that make up the Haversian sys.
What tissue type is blood?
connective tissue
What is the function of the cilia in the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
moves dust and other unwanted particles out. have one nucleus for each cell
What are buccal cells and how can you observe them?
add methylene blue solution, cheek cells
What kind of tissue are buccal cells? and who should see the Barr bodies?
stratified squamous epithelium, women should see the barr bodies
What is brownian movement?
the bombardment of molecules to create an effect of diffusion the movement of molecules from a high con. to a low conc.
What is turbidity?
suspended solutes, cloudiness in solution
What is peritoneal dialysis?
to get material to leave the blood and enter the peritoneal space where the fluid can be drained. Used in renal failure
How is osmosis important in diarrhea and what causes diarrhea?
person is missing lactase and the lactose passes through the large intestines where bacteria it down, now the osmotic consequences there is too many molecules and they move out of the system.
Why does turbidity occur?
cells are present for light to reflect off and this causes turbidity
When looking at RBC's under a microscope you notice the cells are football shaped. When your lab partner adds soltn. the cells take a thin shape, rice-shaped objects. What kind of soltn. is added?
hypertonic solution
True/False: Barr bodies are found when a Y chromosome is present.
false. just the X chromosome
Match the tissue type to the correct structure.
_pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
_connective tissue
-stratified squamous
A. esophagus
b. blood
c. skeletal
d. trachea
What is the function of the spleen?
removal of RBC's
What does the esophagus run through? and describe this organ.
diaphragm, tough piece of connective tissue that has muscle and contracts and pulls down
How many lobes does a lung have?
3 usually
Which ones have monogastric stomachs and which ones have a ruminant stomach?
new born calf, sheep, pig
pig-monogastric, sheep and new born calf-ruminant
What will you see under a miscroscope in the rumen fluid?
bacteria and ciliated protozoa
What is the inner lining of the esophagus? and outside lining?
serosa on the outside, 2 layers of smooth muscle
What is the omentum?
joined to stomach, huge collection of fat and blood vessels and lies over the intestines, used to wrap food in sometimes
What is the rumen of the stomach made of?
How does the reticullum look in the stomach?
like honeycomb
Where does the esophagus come into in the stomach? and what is the function of this lobe?
the omasum, water goes into the blood
What are the folds of the stomach called?
Where does the food leave the stomach?
out of the duodenum
When food leaves the stomach what is it called?
What fluid comes out of the gall bladder and what is its function?
bile comes out, acts as a detergent to emulsify the fat, breaks it down into lipid droplets so that you can't see it now
What is the one part of the body that can regenerate?
the liver
Where is the location of the large intestines?
right beside the stomach
What is the junction in which the small intesttines meets the large intestines?
the ileocecal colonic junction
What is the blind ended part of the large intestines called?
the cecum
What is the tooth made of?
a type of connective tissue around the root
Where are the taste buds located?
on foliate papillae
What is the junction called that leads the esophagus to the gastric pits of the stomach?
the esophagus-stomach junction
What type of tissue covers the stomach?
simple columnar epithelium
What parts of the body does glucose function in?
the brain, heart and muscle function
What can glucose be derived from?
lipid (VFA's) or protein
Rank the order of the glucose levels in each of the following animals: pig, cow, chicken
chicken, pig, cow
What enzyme does ruminants produce for dealing with milk protein? and where is it produced?
rennin, abomasum
What is the commercial rennin called? and what is it derived from?
emporase, bacteria
What does a person usually have when flies come around when a person has just peed.
diabetes mellitus
What is histology?
the microscopic structures of the organ and tissues of the body.
Where is the gray matter located in the spinal cord?
in the center
Where are NCB's located in the spinal cord? and what do they look like?
in the grey matter, dark orange shapes with a large nucleus present
Where is the white matter located in the spinal cord?
on the outside
Where are the axons located on the spinal cord?
in the white matter, in a cross section appear as hollow tubes
Where will you find the meninges of the spinal cord?
around the outside of the spinal cord, around it
What are the layers of the meninges?
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
What is a ganglion and where do you fin dit?
a collection of NCb outside the spinal cord, the CNS
Where motor neurons come out of the spinal cord?
dorsal gray matter
What is the artery made of?
circular smooth muscle, nuclei that circle the lumen and connective tissue around the blood vessel that keeps the blood pressure up
What is a nerve?
a collection of axons
How do our systems create senses?
convert incoming energy (light, heat, pressure and sound waves) into neural singla. analogous ot the afferent loop of a reflex arc
What are the five senes?
smell, sight, touch, sound, taste
What type of receptors are responsible for the internal sensations?
exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors
What is the signal for internal and external sense organs?
environmental disturbance
What is the sclerotic coat?
the tough, white outer layer which protects and gives the shape to the eyeball
What is the sclera?
a place for muscle attachment to move the eye, the white of the eye
What is the cornea?
a transparent outer covering of the eye, which is an extension of the sclera, curved surface for focusing light rays
What is the conjunctiva?
a thin membrane continuous with the inner surface of the eyelid and the adhering to the cornea
What happens when there is an abnormality in the cornea? what is it called?
blurry vision and out of focus images, called astigmatism
What is the layer under the sclera?
the choroid, prevents internal reflection of light rays, vascular
What part of the eye improves light in low light conditions and where is it
tapetum lucidum, part of the choroid layer, with an irrdescent or metallic luster, reflects some light back to the retina
What are the reason for eyes shining in light?
What is the ciliary body?
the anterior thickening of the choroid layer and the ciliary muscles used for focusing on ner objects
what is the iris?
a forward extension of the choroid layer, regulates the amount of light passing through the lens, radial and circular smooth muscle

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