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benchmark 12 weeks


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transfers energy to ATP
prepares proteins for export and synthesizes steriods
Cell membrane
regulates movement of substances into and out of a cell
organizes protein synthesis
the basic unit of life
Golgi apparatus
processes and packages substances produced by the cell
stores DNA and synthesizes RNA
digests molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances
shrinking of cells
membrane-bound organelle
relatively high solute concentration
concentration gradient
concentration difference across space
bursting of cells
relatviely low solute concentration
uptake of large particles
uptake of solutes or fluids
The maximum size to which a cell may grow is limited mainly by the cell's
surface area
The discovery of cells is limited most directly with
the development of the microscope
In which of the following types of cells would you expect to find a large number of
Microfilaments and microtubules
function in cell structure and movement
which of the following is the correct order of structures in living things, from the simplest to the most complex?
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
An example of an organ is
the stomach
Short, hairlike organelles that can move and may cover a unicellylar organism or line the respiratory tract are called
The first cells on earth were likley
prokaryotes that did not make their own food
Name two functions of the proteins embedded in the cell membrane
they serve as attachment sites for molecules in the extracellular fluid and transport substances across the membrane
What are the three parts of the cell theory?
all living things are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism, and cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
name two different kinds of animal cells and describe how their shape is related to their function
nerve cell has long extintions to transmit quicly and skin cells are flat so it can cover large areas
Descirbe two differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane-bound nucleus and eukaryotic cells do have a membrane-bound nucleus
what is a colonial organism?
a collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a closely group
The process of diffusion requires
a difference in the concentration of molecules throughout a space
if the molecular concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
is in equilibrium
a type of transport in which water moves across a membrane and down its concentration gradient is
net movement of water across a cell membrane occurs
from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution
all forms of passive transport depends on
the kinetic energy of molecules
sodium-potassium pump
move sodium ions out of cells and potassium into the cells
What structure that can move excess water out of unicellular organisms is a
contractile vacuole
most of the time, the enviorment that plant cells live in is
plasmolysis of a huma red blood cell would occur if the cell were
in a hypertonic solution
name three types of passive transport
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
name three types of active transport
sodium-potassium pump, exocytosis, endocytosis
what is the fundamental difference between carrier proteins that participate in facilitated diffusion and carrier proteins that function as a pump?
carrier proteins that serve in facilitated diffusion transport molecules from an are of higher concentration on one side of the membrane to an are of lower concentration on the other side.
carrier proteins that function uses energy
Describe the action of the sodium-potassium pump
3 sodium bind into the protein and the phosphate binds to form atp. then the sodium are released on the outside of the cell. 2 potassium ions bind onto the carrier protien and the phosphate is cut away. then the potassium are released inside the cell
contrast endocytosis and exocytosis
endoycytosis is the process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules and large particlesm including other cells. Exocytosis is vesicles in the cytoplasm fuse with the cell membrane releasing there contents into the cells external enviorment

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