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Science (Only chaps 4+)

for all people studying for the science final!!!


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Harmful bacteria
cause infectious diseases, produces toxin, and spoils food
How do bacteria become resistent to antibiotics?
because the white blood cells multiply overtime
Three types of blood cells
Red blood cells...white blood cells...and platelets
sex-linked traits
Traits that are found on the X chromosome
Selective Breeding
a method used to develop organisms with desirable traits
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celcius degree
a J shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen
job of pistil
female reproductive part
vascular tissue
an internal system of tube like structures through which water and good move inside the plant
3 examples of nonvascular plants
Peat moss, liverworts, and hornworts
the science of sorting living things into groups based on similarities and differences
How materials are transported in a nonvascular plant
they're passed from one cell to the next
Male sex chromosome
the pulmonary vein is different than all the other veins because...
it's the only one that carries oxegenated blood
Seeds need _____ to develop into plants
_____=light, water, and nutrients
producing organisms that have exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced
What contributions did Carolus Linnaeus make to the field of taxonomy?
He came up with the naming and subgrouping system
What role did Darwin play on the Beagle?
He was the naturalist, and he had to learn as much as he could about the living things he saw on the voyage.
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
The pulmonary artery is different than all the others because...
it's the only one that carries deoxegenated blood
What contributions did the microscope make to the field of taxonomy?
allowed scientists to discover microscopic life and to observe whether cells have chlorophyll or nuclei
Function of the large intestine
Absorbs water from food and the remaining material is removed from the body
Casts-how they're formed
when a mold is filled in with hardened minerals
Job of the Leaf
to capture the suns energy and carry out the food-making process of photosynthesis
Natural Selection
The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce then other members of the same species
3 main characteristics of plants
eukaryotes...multicellular...and autotrophs
Skins job in the excretory system
Part of the sweating process because when we sweat we excrete salt and water
3 ways that seeds are dispersed
through...animals digestive systems, hooking on animal fur, the ocean or winds
the early growth stage of the embryo
Function of the esophagus
Connects the mouth and the stomach
Functions of the circulatory system
Transports oxegen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and enzymes...regulates body temperature...clots blood to prevent fluid loss...and fights illness'
job of speal
protect developing flowers
4 factors that may contribute to Natural Selection
Overproduction...competition...variation...and selection
job of stamen
male reproductive part
the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lives in the past
Function of the pancreas
continues the breakdown of starch and proteins
Female sex chromosome
Helpful bacteria
clean the environment, make food and antibiotics, aids in food digestion, aids in fuel production, decompose, and help make natural gas
Petrified fossils-how they're formed
remains are buried in sediment and eventually turned to rock
The structure of the virus
Has two parts...outer protein coat that protects the ring and an inner core made out of genetic material
Genetic Disorder
an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
Function of the stomach
ex[ands to hold all food holds about 2 liters of food
a hollow space in sediment in the shape of an organism
Function of the gall bladder
stores bile after it's produced by the liver
Compare punctuated equilibria and gradualism
Gradualism states that evolution occurs slowly but steadily and that tiny changes gradually add up to major changes over a long period of time white punctuated equilibria states that species evolve during short periods of rapid change. There are also times of no change. Also, species evolve quicker when isolated (ex. continental drift.)
Why are organisms classified into groups?
Because once an organism is classified, a scientist knows a lot about that organism and this makes it easier to study them
job of petal
colorful structures
Livers job in the excretory system
filters toxins from the blood and excretes them
What can be learned from fossils?
about organisms that're extinct and about how and when a new organism evolved
a flap of tissue that seals off your windpipe, preventing the food from entering
Function of the liver
breaks down fats
when breeders cross two genetically different individuals
Major characteristics used to classify organisms into kingdoms
If the organism is...unicellular or multicelluar...autotroph or heterotrpoh...prokaryote or eukaryote
What contributions did Aristotle make to the field of taxonomy?
He classified organisms into 3 dwellers, sea dwellers, and air dwellers
Functions of the salivary glands
mixes pieces of food and moisturizes them...breaks down starch...makes saliva
How do bacteria survive without a nucleus?
because the genetic material in their cells isnt contained in the nucleus
Preserved Remains-how they're formed
when an organism is preserved in a substance such as ice, tar, or sap
Human Genome Project
A map of every single gene on every single chromosome

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