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Modern Biology (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) Chapter 1&2 terms

This set is designed for Holt Rinehart and Winston- Modern Biology textbook Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 biology terms but it could help in other biology classes too. Hope it helps, and good luck! :)

Terms

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homeostasis
that maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions are constantly changing
chemical reaction
one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
independant variable
the experimenter manipulates this
saturated solution
one in which no more solute can dissolve
weight
the force produced by gravity acting on mass
organization
the high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world
organelles
tiny structure that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
hypothesis
a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions
covalent bond
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment
resolution
the power to show details clearly in an image
enzyme
protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
hydrogen bond
the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
prediction
a statement that forcasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were true
reduction reaction
a reactant gains one or more electrons and becomes negative
evolution
the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations
control group
provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group
theory
a set of hypothesis that is confirmed to be true many times
cell division
the fomation of two new cells from an existing cell
solution
a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
peer review
when scientists who are experts in the field anonymously read a research paper and critique it
experimental group
identical to the control group except the independant variable
ionic bond
positive and negative charges attract each other
objective lens
light passes through the objective lens, which is located directly above the specimen
cell
the smallest unit that can perform all life's processes
reactants
shown on the left side of the equation.
activation energy
the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
kingdoms
a grouping system that divides organisms into 6 major categories
chemical bonds
the attractive forces that hold atoms together
experiment
used to test a hypothesis and its predictions
pH scale
a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions
concentration
the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
biology
The study of life
adaptations
traits that improve an individual's ability to survive and reproduce
ion
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
cohesion
an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
adhesion
the attractive force between two particles of different substances
orbital
a three dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron (like the shell)
redox reactions
electrons transferred between atoms
tissues
groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function
natural selection
organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organism that lacks these traits
observation
the act of perceiving a natural occurance that causes someone to pose question
elements
substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
biological molecules
the chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy, use, and other cellular functions
light source
a light bulb that provides light for viewing the image
ecology
the study of organisms interacting with each other and the environment
ecosystems
communities of living species and their physical environments
oxidation reaction
a reactant loses one or more electrons and becomes positive
eyepiece/ocular lens
magnifies an image, usually 10x
SEM (scanning electron microscope)
passes a beam of electrons over the specimens surface
solute
a substance dissolved in the solvent
organ
a structure that carries out specialized jobs within an organ system
stage
a platform that supports a slide holding the specimen
nucleus
the central region of an atom that makes up the bulk of the mass
base units
describe quantities in SI
aqueous solution
solutions in which water is the solvent
products
shown on the right side of the equation.
inference
an assumption
compounds
made up of two or more elements in a fixed proportion
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
metric system
a standard system of measurement used by scientists
scientific method
an organized approach to learn how the natural world works
compound light microscope
a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image
multicellular
multiple cells
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
atom
the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
dependant variable
is affected by the independant variable
base
the number or hydroxide ions is greater than the number of hydronium ions
catalysts
reduce the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction to take place
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
hydroxide ion
OH-
nosepiece
the structure that holds the set of objective lenses
TEM (transmission electron microscope)
transmits a beam of electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen
buffers
chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or base added to a solution
hydronium ion
H30+
capillarity
the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
molecule
the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
energy
the ability to do work
mass
the quantity of matter an object has
acid
the number of hydronium ions is greater than the number of hydroxide ions
magnification
the increase of an object's apparent size
nucleus
contains protons and neutrons
domains
major subdivisions of all organism
polar
uneven distribution of charge
unicellular
made up of one cell
solvent
the substance in which the solute is dissolved

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