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sciencetest

science test on mitosis, transport, cells, etc.

Terms

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metaphase
chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell called the equatorial plate;; anaphase-chromosomes are pulled apart
alcoholic fermentation
glucose (6c) -->2 pyruvic acids (3c)-->CO2, 2ATP, Ethyl Alcohol
robert hooke
coined the term "cell"
when is energy resleased?
when bonds between phosphates break
lactic acid fermentation
(in humans) leads to muscle fatigue
transport
the movement of moleules around a cell
photosynthesis and aerobic resp. are _______
__________=opposites
phagocytosis
surround food
galileo galilei
contributed to the discovery of the cell
prophase
-chromosomes become thick and visible -nuclear membrane disappears -spindle fibers begin to form -nucleus disappears
anaerobic respiration
requires no oxygen to break down glucose; glucose is broken down into - 2 ATP, CO2, alcohol/lactic acids
what type of reproduction is mitosis?
asexual reproduction;; both cells formed are genetically identical to one another
formula for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O --> ATP, light, chloroplasts--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
cell membrane
allows small substances to go in and out of the cell (semi-permeable)
osmosis
the movement of water molecules around a cell membrane
mitosis
is the process by which the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell replicate and divide to form two new cells
types of active transport
pinocytosis and phagocytosis
photosynthesis products
glucose, oxygen
aerobic respiration
requires oxygen to completely break down glucose; takes place in the mitochondria; the products are- CO2, H2O, 36 ATP/glucose (18x more efficient)
rudolph virchow
all cells come from other cells
cytokinesis
is the process in which the cytoplasm and the rest of the organelles are divided between the two new cells
two waste products of anaerobic resp.
CO2, alcohol, lactic acids
cellular respiration
the process of converting food energy into chemical energy
passive transport
the movement of molecules from high to low without the use of energy
Schleiden + Schwann
discovered that all living things are composed of cells
light
energized electrons (photons)
steps of mitosis
interphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase
how many steps of mitosis?
4
cell theory
(1) all cells come from other cells (2) all cells are basic unit of structure and function (3) all living things are made up of cells
middle of the cell
equatorial plate
active transport
the movement of molecules from low to high using energy
lactic acid fermentation formula
glucose (6c)-->2 pyruvic acids (6c)-->CO2, 2ATP, Lactic Acids
two waste products of aerobic resp.
CO2, H2O
anaphase
[[part of metaphase]] chromosomes are pulled apart
structure of cell membrane
2 lipid layer (bilayer), fluid (moves), proteins carry molecules across membrane
robert brown
discovered the nucleus
difussion
the spreading out of molecules
raw materials of photosynthesis
CO2, H2O, light, chloroplasts, ATP
replicate
make a copy of themselves
ATP
energy is in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
mitochonria
the site of cellular respiration (make ATP)
photosynthesis
the converting of light energy into chemical energy
pinocytosis
suck in food (engulf)
interphase
-chromosomes replicate -cell grows and matures
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
invented a single lensed microscope
wavelength
the length between each wave
telophase
-two new cells -nucleus reappears -nucleolus reappears -spindle fibers disappear -cell plate forms a new cell wall (plants) -cell furrow pinches in to form two new cell membranes in animal cells
cytoplasmic streaming
the movement of cytoplasm
2 pathways of cellular respiration
aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration
types of passive transport
osmosis diffusion

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