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usmle: micro I


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what does Candida albicans do that distinguishes it from other fungi
forms a germinal tube at 37C
what protozoal parasite results in dysentery w/ blood and pus in the stool, is transmitted via fecal-oral route, is diagnosed by cysts or trophozoites in the stool and forms liver abscesses and inverted falask-shaped lesions in the large int?
tx w/?
e. histolytica
what is the most likely causitive organism for a patient with folliculitis after spending time in a hot tub
what two viruses get their envelope not from budding but from coding
which type of hepatitis can cause hepaticellular carcinoma
gas gangrene is associated with which clostridium species
which dimorphic fungus is found as hyphae with nondescript conidia in rotting wood in the upper great lakes, ohio, mississippi, eastern seaboard of the US and southern canada
blastomyces dermatitidis
which parasitic organism, when it crosses the placenta, results in intracerebral calcifications, chorioretinitis, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, and convulsions
toxoplasma gondii
what staphylococcal species is pos for beta-hemolysis and coagulase
staph a.
what vector is assoc w/ malaria
anopheles mosquito
what is the term for hyphae w/ constrictions at each septum that are commonly seen in candida albicans
which cestode infection results in alveolar hydatid cyst disease
echinococcus multilocularis
which hepatitis virus is in the flaviviridae family
what nonmotile gram negative, non-lactose fermenting facultative anaerobic rod uses the human colon as its only reservoir and is transmitted by fecal oral spread
what is the only Rickettsia that is stable in the environment
coxiella burnetti
(doesn't need a vector)
regarding the viral growth curve, is the internal virus present before or after the eclipse period
after the eclipse period
what Ab is an indication of recurrent disease for hepatitis
what small gram pos, non-spore forming rod is a faultative intracellular parasite that grows in the cold and is assoc w/ unpasteurized milk products
listeria monocytogenes
what is the only DNA virus that is not icosahedral
which organsism causes trench mouth
t or f
all of the following are inactivated vaccines available in the US: influenza, vibrio cholera, hep A, rabies, and adenovirus
adenovirus vaccine is live
name the plasmodium spp...
1. no persistent liver stage or relapse; blood smear shows multiple ring forms and crescent-shaped gametes; irregular febrile pattern; assoc w/ cerebral malaria
2. no persistent liver stage or relapse; blood smear sho
1. plasmodium falciparum
2. plasmodium malariae
3. plasmodium ovale
4. plasmodium vivax
t or f
a pos PPD skin test indicates the patient has active pulmonary disease
it tests exposure
what viral infection is kown to cause intracerebral calcification
toxo also causes intracerebral calcifications but it is a parasite
what motile, gram neg spiral bacillus w/ flagella is oxidase pos, urease pos, and assoc w/ gastritis, peptuc ulcer disease, and stomach cancer
h. pylori
what glycoprotein in the HIV virus is used for fusion
what Ag is needed to diagnose an infectious patient w/ hep B
which organism causes multiple infections by antigen switching
borrelia recurrentis
what is the first Ag seen in an individual w/ hep
with which DNA virus are guanieri bodies assoc
variola (small pox)
what nematode is known as pinworms? what is the tx
enterobus vermicularis
tx = albendazole
what protein allows mycoplasma to attach to the resp epithelium
p1 protein
what organism is assoc w/ the following type of diarrhea...
1. day care-assoc diarrhea in infants
2. watery diarrhea from beef, poultry, or gravies
3. rice water stools
4. diarrhea assoc w/ raw or undercooked shellfish
5. blood d
1. rotavirus
2. clostridium perfringens
3. vibrio cholera
4. vibrio parahaemolyticus
5. enterotoxigenic E. coli
which fungus is found worldwide on plants, is a cigar-shaped yeast in tissue form, and resultsin rose gardener's dis
sporothrix schenckii
what type of hepatitis is a picornavirus
what grap pos rod is distinguished by its tumbling motility
what is the vector for leishmania infections
what is the term of the viral growth period when no viruses can be found intracellulary
eclipse period
what organsism causes Q fever
coxiella burnetti
(A rickettsia)
what are the three naked RNA virus
1. picornavirus
2. calicivirus
3. reovirus
and astro
HIV capsid, core nucleocapsid, and matrix proteins are products of what structural gene
gag gene
what facultative intracellular fungus is assoc w/ hepatosplenomegaly
histoplasma capsulatum
what type of hepatitis has the highest mortality rate among pregnant women
which gram neg diplococcus ferments maltose
are antibiotics helpful in treating a disease caused by a prion
what bacterium is rsponsible for woolsorter's disease
bacillus anthracis
what picornavirus is assoc w/ hand-foot-and mouth diseaes
coxsackie A
what is the only trematode that is not hermaphroditic
schistosoma have boys and girls
what water-assoc organism is weakly stained gram neg rod that requires cysteine and iron from growth
*all the "ellas" req cysteine for growth
with what virus are Downey type II cells assoc
t or f
interferons are eukaryotic proteins that inhibit viral replication by being virus specific
interferons are produced by virally infected cells to inhibit viral replication via RNA endonucleases. They do not act directly on the virus, nor ar they virus specific
what is the vector for yellow fever
aedes mosquito
what sm, facultative gram neg intracellular rod's transmission is assoc w/ unpasterurized dairy products and undulant fever
t or f
all proteus spp are urease pos
which genus of dermatophytes is assoc w/ the following asites of infection...
1. nails and skin
2. hair and skin
3. skin, hair, and nails
1. epidermophyton
2. microsporum
3. trichophyton
what protein of the HIV virus does ELISA detect
what genus of bacteria is described by catalase-pos, gram pos cocci in clusters
t or f
vibrio parahemolyticus req NaCl in its growth medium
staph a. and group D enterococci also grow in high salt media
what virus causes sm pink benign wartlike tumors and is assoc w/ HIV pos patients
molluscum contagiosum
what two bacteria are assoc w/ drinking unpasteurized milk
bucella and listeria (the tumbler)
what cestode causes cysticercosis
taenia solium
what DNA virus is assoc w/ exanthem subitum (roseola)
which acid-fast rod is an obligate intracellular parasite
mycobacterium leprae
what form of the plasmodium spp is ingested by mosquitoes
what sm gram neg aerobic rod requires Regan-Low or Bordet-Gengou medium for growth
bordetella pertussis
t or f
streptococci have catalase
staph have catalase
what three bacteria are pos to quellung reactive test
neisseria meningitidis
haemophilus influenza
streptococcus pneumoniae

-must have capsules
Quellung - swelling
a patient goes to the ER w/ abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and sweating less thean 24 hrs after eating potato salad at a picnic
staph a
t or f
all spore formers are gram pos
(bacillus and clostridium)
what is the only DNA virus thata has reverse transcriptase
what enzyme does HIV use to integrate the proviral dsDNA into the host
what are the two hepatitis viruses that can be chronic and can lead eventually to hepatocellular carcinoma
what gram pos spore forming anaerobic rod blocks the release of ACh at the NMJ, resulting in reversible flaccid paralysis
clostridium botulinum
name at least two products of HIVs pol gene
reverse transcriptase
what form of plasmodium spp affects the liver
what sm coagulase pos, gram neg rod w/ bipolar staining is a facultative intracellular parasite resulting in buboes
yersinia pestis
what hemoflagellate spp is the cause of chagas dis
trypanosoma cruzi
to what host cell receptor does the rabies virus attach
ACh receptor
which hepatitis virus is in the picornaviridae family
Abs to what hepatitis B Ag provide immunity
Abs to HBsAg
what type of spore is defined as an asexual budding daughter yeast cell
which of the following characteristics accurately describe fungi, bacteria, viruses, and parasites
1. eukaryotic cell, 15 to 25 microns, 80S ribosomes, no cell walls, replicates via cytokinesis w/ mitosis and meiosis
2. sm prokaryotic cells; no
1. parasites
2. bacteria
3. fungi
4. viruses
what mosquito is the vector for dengue fever
(same for yellow fever)
t or f
gonococcus in encapsulated
f- meningococcus is encapsulated
no gonococcus
regarding the viral growth curve, is the external virus present before or after the latent period
what aerobic branching rod that is gram pos and partially acid fast is assoc w/ cavitary bronchopulmonary disease in immunosuppressed patients
nocardia asteroides
what obligate extracellular fungus is silver stain pos and is assoc w/ pneumonia in patients w/ AIDS
pneumocystis carinii
what Vi encapsulated gram neg motile anaerobic rod that produces H2S is assoc w/ enteric fever, gastroenteririts, and septicemia
salmonella typhi
what is the most likely organism causing cellulitis in a patient who was cut by an oyster shell
vibrio vulnificus
what virus is assoc w/ norwalk agent
describe the organsism
1. beta-hemolytic streptococcus, pos cAMP; hydrolyzes hippurate
2. alpha-hemolytic strep; lysed by bile; sens to optochin
3. alpha hemolytic strep; not lysed by bile; not sens to optochin
4. beta hemolytic strep
1. strep agalactiae
2. pneumococcus (strep pneumo)
3. strep viridans
4. strep pyogenes
what is the only nonmotile pathogenic clostridium spp
if a virus has pos sense RNA, can it be used as mRNA or is a template needed
pos sense RNA can be used as mRNA
neg sense requires a special RNA dep RNA polymerase
where do adult tapeworms develop, in the intermediate or definitive host
adult tapeworms develop in the definitive host
cysticerci or larvae develop in the intermediate host
which strep spp is characterized by being catalase neg, turning bile exculin agar back, producing a pos PYR test, and resulting in biliary and urinary tract infections
enterococcus (strep faecalis)
what three carcinomas are assoc w/ EBV
burkitt's lymphoma
nasopharyngeal carcinoma
thymic carcinoma
which organism causes trench fever
rochalimaea quintana
aka bartonella quintana
based on the onset of the sx, how are bacterial conjunctiviits from neisseria and chlamydia differentiated
neisseria gonorrhea conjunctivitis is 2 to 5 days
chlamydia trachomatis is 5 to 10 days
what toxin produced by clostridium tetani, binds to ganglioside receptors and blocks the release of glycine and GABA at the spinal synapse
tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin)
t or f
all of the following are live attenuated vaccines
francissela tularensis
yellow fever
sabin polio
what family do the following belong to
1. ebola
2. california encephalitis
3. hantavirus
4. rabies
5. RSV
6. measles
1. filovirus
2. bunyavirus
3. bunyavirus
4. rhabdovirus
5. paramyxovirus
6. paramyxovirus
what microaerophile is a motile gramneg curved rod w/ polar flagella that causes infectious diarrhea at low doses
campylobacter jejuni
what bacterium is diagnosed useing the dieterle silver strain
how many strains of pneumococcus capsular polysaccharides are present in the vaccine
23 capsular polysaccharides
what nematode is known as whipworm?
trichuris trichuria
which strep pyotenes toxin is immunogenic
streptolysin O
a urethral swab of a patient shows gram neg diplococci in PMNs,
neisseria gonorrhea
a suspected dermatophyte infection is stained w/ KOH... what do you see
arthroconidia w/ hyphae
what neg sense RNA virus is assoc w/ cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis w/ photophobia
measles (rubeola)
which M-protein strain of strep pyogenes is assoc w/ acute glomerulonephritis
what are the three Cs of measles
what is the term given to arthropod borne viruses
arbovirus (bunyavirus, flavivirus, and togavirus) and reovirus
which organism causes weil's disease
transmitted by rat -> hemorrhagic and renal sx plus juandice
what form of the plasmodium spp are injected into humans mosquito
what ssDNA virus must make dsDNA before it makes mRNA
(the only ssDNA virus)
what is the vector of african sleeping sickness
tsetse fly
what HIV enzyme prodces a dsDNA provirus
reverse transcriptase
what non spore forming gram pos aerobic rod produces bull neck, sore throat w/ pseudomembranes, myocarditis, and sometimes respiratory obstructions
corynebacterium diphtheria

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