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EOSC 114 final exam


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How are the earth atmosphere and ocean stratified?
according to density
What is the SI unit for years? (ex. one millenium)
a (1000 a)
What are the time scales for : earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, rogue waves, landslides and meteorites?
E: years – minutes
V: decades – days
H: months - days
T: hours - minutes
R: hours - seconds
L: days - seconds
M: millenia - seconds
Thunderstorms occur in the ________ (layer of the atmostphere).
SI unit for mass is the ________
Isotopes have the same number of ________but a different number of ____________.
(same # of) protons
(different # of ) neutrons
The greatest chemical components of Earths crust are___________
oxygen, silicon, aluminum
Some molecules loan electrons, and valences sum to zero. This is what type of bond?
Some molecules share electrons. this is what type of bond?
Atoms in molecules sometimes line up in a ___________. This is called a __________.
regular lattice

Cyrstals will fracture along the _________bonds in the lattice. Where they fracture is called ____________

cleavage planes
The change in size or shape of an object is called __________
What type of strain describes the ability for an object to bounce back to its orginal form after being deformed?
elastic strain
What type of strain describes the ability of an object to deform its shape permanently when forced?

(ductile = very plastic)
Tightly bound groups of atoms that are not completely ___________because they carry a non-zero charge are called____________

The following type of energy is defined as a Force X Distance
What is the SI unit for pressure and stress? How is is defined?

The period of a wave is _____

So a wave going 2 cycles/sec has a period of ________

Individual waves travel at the ______speed.
Packages of waves travel at the _________speed.
Energy and matter travel at the _______speed.
_______speed is faster than ________speed.
phase is faster than group
Tornadoes happen most often in ___________
central North America
If a material deforms easily and remains deformed after the stress is removed the material is __________
Irregular motion of energy and matter whose wavelength/period cannot be measured or predicted from past motion is____________
turbulent motion
How is the doubling time defined?

If world pop is growing at rate of 1.3%, what is the DT?
DT: 70/%growth rate

_________waves are parallel to the direction of propagation.
Mt Pinatubo was compounded by the fact that during the eruption _____________
a typhoon hit
Hurricanes are called _________in the Western Pacific and ___________ in Australia.

In 97-98 the following event caused Torrential rain and mudslides in Southern California, Flooding in Peru that washed out many bridges, warming of the surface water in the eastern Pacific Ocean
and Snow in Mexico
El nino
Since 1950 economic losses in developed countries have__________
increased exponentially
The number of human deaths in the past 20 years due to natural disasters has _________
fluctuated by an order of magnitude from year to year
In the 20th century which 2 types of natural disaster killed the most people?
Earthquakes and hurricanes
How old is the earth?
4.5 Ga (giga years)
Force per unit are applied perpindicular to a surface is called __________
Water _________in density when it freezes.
The Himilayas are the result of a ____________plate boundary
continental collision
Tectonic plates move as a result of ________________
pull from huge subducting slabs
When we refer to ‘plates’, we are talking about the ______, which is _____ than the layer below it.

stronger and colder
At collisional plate boundaries what type of fault is common?
thrust or reverse where the overhanging side slides up
A normal fault is where the overhanging side slides _________
San Andreas and Queen Charlottes faults are what kind of fault?
strike slip
The fault nearest Vancouver is the __________and can cause magnitude ____
Cascadia Subduction Zone

Fastest type of seismic wave is the __________
p wave
You can compute the Richter magnitude of an earthquake using these two pieces of information:
maximum amplitude of shaking, difference between P-wave and S-wave arrival times
What kind of shaking could be the most dangerous to the tallest high-rises downtown?
low freq horizontal shaking (<1Hz)
The S-wave shadow zone provides evidence that _____.
the Earth has a liquid outer core
The mercalli earthquake intensity scale does not depend on the _________________
style of faulting
When soil is loosely packed, it may flow like a ______ during an earthquake, especially when saturated. This is called___________

What is omori's law?

If there were 1000 aftershocks the day after an earthquake, the next day how many earhqakes would there be?

N= # of aftershocks
In an earthquake the fault ruptures first at the ____ and the rupture moves out from this point at a rate of ____.

100 m/s
Buildings that are not fully supported on the first floor (i.e. department stores with high ceilings) can lead to ___________
soft story collapse
P waves travel via _________, parallel to the direction of propagation. They move at a speed of ________making them the ______type of seismic wave.

6 km/s

S waves move __________to the direction of motion.

They travel at a speed of __________

3.5 km/s
What is a seismic gap?
A fault segment which has not had a large earthquake recently.
What happens to the different frequencies in a seismic wave as it travels long distances through the Earth’s mantle?
high frequencies disappear
_____ deaths were caused by earthquakes in the 20th century, and the total shaking time for 20th century
earthquakes was_____.

tens of minutes
A renewal forecast states that as time goes by, likelhood of an earthquake is ___________
According to the latest renewal forecasts, the probability of a M9 Cascadia subduction zone earthquake in the next 50
years is _____.
You would feel the shaking of an M9 earthquake for about __________
5-10 minutes
Why is the Richter magnitude often called the local magnitude?
The Richter magnitude is supposed to be computed from local seismographs (within 500 km of the epicentre).
Which seismic waves shake at a high enough frequency to actually be heard?
Stonely waves.
When a P-wave passes through an interface into a material with a higher P-wave velocity, its travel path ______ and
the new travel direction is more nearly _____.

In a Rayleigh wave, the ground motion is _____, and the amplitude of shaking is _____ at the surface.
horizontal and vertical, biggest
The 2001 Nisqually earthquakes in Washington State occurred at a depth of 50 km. It occurred ______.
in the subducting plate
Magma is molten rock________
beneath the surface of the earth
(not made of mostly silica and feldspar)
The main factor leading to an increase in volcano-related fatalities over the past 50 years is an increase in ____.
The two most common elements at the surface of the earth are ____.
oxygen and silicon
The type of magma most likely to cause a violent volcanic eruption is____.
high viscosity and relatively cool
The landform you would expect from mafic volcanism is a ____.
shield volcano
Shield volcano, composite cone, and cinder cone are landforms from _________
largest to smallest
An important difference between a pyroclastic flow and a lahar is _____________
Pyroclastic flows only occur during eruptions.
Most volcanic ash is formed by ____.
The rapid growth and destruction of gas bubbles within the magma
How does a caldera form?
An extremely large eruption empties the magma chamber and the volcano collapses inwards.
What is a nuée ardente?
A red-hot avalanche of incandescent gases and glowing volcanic fragments.

type of pyroclastic flow
Geolists dated the ancient eruptions at Mt St. Helens by ___________
radiocarbon dating trees killed by the volcano
Where do most subaerial volcanoes occur?
Convergent plate tectonic boundaries.
What type of magma would you expect in the ground above a continental hot spot?
Which of the following gases does NOT come out of a volcano:
Water vapour (H2O)
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2).
What hazard is associated with Mt. Rainier?
If Mt Baker erupted what hazard threatens UBC?
Landslides are most likely to occur if
the factor of safety goes below 1.0
Landslides in BC are not that related to _________
quick clays
The Rissa quick clay landslide was triggered by ____________
Quick clays tend to lose shear strength when____________
salt is removed from the clay
On the west coast of British Columbia landslides are most likely to occur in what month?
The fastest landslide type is a ____.
The Frank slide in the Eastern Rocky Mountains was caused by all but one of the following:

Extensive coal mining.
Weak fractured and faulted bedrock.
Bedding planes of sedimentary bedrock parallel to the slope. Wet weather in years p
remove of vegetation above the slide
What is the likely return interval of extremely large landslide events (> 20 million m3) in the Southern Canadian
25-100 yrs
to prevent smaller blocky material from falling onto the road you should use___________
How does a debris avalanche differ from a debris flow?
A debris avalanche is not confined to a channel.
In the Hawaiian Islands large landslides have caused ____.
the erosion of channels in bedrock on the coast of Australia
Which is the most important type of landslide in the coastal region of British Columbia?
debris flow
The Swedish Circle analysis of slope stability is used on which type of landslide?
rotational slide
Which of the following is NOT a hazard of thunderstorms?
Storm surge.
storm surge - thats hurricanes
A full-sized thunderstorm reaches about how high in the atmosphere?
Saturation vapour pressure (es) is dependent on the ____.
A relative humidity of 75% means ____.
the air is holding 75% of the water it could hold
The dew point temperature describes ____.
the temperature at which water vapour will condense out of the air
Measuring humidity by measuring changing resistance of a carbon-coated glass slide is a _______
A supercell thunderstorm sometimes____________
has extremely low precipitation
Energy in the form of hot humid air reaches storms through ____.
The primary source of energy for the Earth’s weather is ____.
the sun
Most thunderstorms form ____.
in the afternoon to early evening
In North America most thunderstorms form ____.
in the southeast US
One of the differences between positive and negative lightning strikes is ____.
positive strikes come from the anvil
If you increase the temperature of an air parcel ____.
it will be more buoyant
The concept of continuity describes how ____.
air molecules tend to spread themselves smoothly and evenly
Pressure gradients form because ____.
warm air loses pressure more slowly than cold air with increasing altitude
Strong currents of air which descend from thunderstorms are called ____.
Arc clouds are caused by ____.
gust fronts
An adiabatic process refers to ____.
a change in temperature that does not involve heat transfer
The lifting condensation level ____.
is the z at which water vapour condenses out of the air in an updraft
One thunderstorm can spawn a daughter storm by ____.
creating a gustfront to lift warm boundary level air off the ground
Tornado translation speeds are ____.
between 0 and 100 km/h
During which months are hurricanes most likely to occur off the coast of North America?
August to September
Why don’t hurricanes form at the equator?
Coriolis effect is too weak
Which of the following does NOT help to strengthen hurricanes?
A) Warm ocean water >26° C.
B) A large pressure gradient between the eye and the outer part of the storm.
C) Ocean spray from waves increasing the humidity near the centre
Mixing of the upper levels of the ocean by strong waves
The short period high frequency compression waves that travel through any material are called ___________
p waves

about 4.8 km/s in rock
1.4 km/s in water
The transverse waves that shear or shake through material perpindicular to the direction of motion are _____________, and only move through solids.
secondary waves

about 3 km/s
Because ____ waves don't travel through liquid, we know the earth's core is surrounded by a liquid, since these waves stop or are converted into something else.
secondary waves

s waves
Surfaces waves are of what two types?

They are created by _________waves disturbing the surface.
Raleigh and Love

Low frequency long period waves are called_____________
L waves

(Raleigh and Love)
L waves that only travel through solids, and move side to side in a horizontal plane perpindicular to the direction of motion are ___________

They travel faster than ____________waves
Love waves

________waves move in a backward rolling elliptical motion, both horizontal and vertical. A _________hypocenter means more P and S waves hit the surface making these waves ________


Tsunami are most often created by ________________

What kind?

uplift of the deep sea floor

Vertical movement fault movements at subduction zones
The largest historic wave occurred in ________ in __________. It is also called a_______

Lituya Bay, Alaska

The most powerful waves occur when ____________
a several km ateroid hits the ocean
The velocity of a tsunami is calculated by __________

D=depth of ocean water
How fast are tsunami?
about 232m/s (518mph)
Tsunami are about _______high in the open ocean and grow to ________in shallow water
1 meter

6-15 meters
A tsunami's destructive power is due to its _____________not __________

Which wave in a series of Tsunami is usually the biggest?
it is unpredictable
Why was the Nicaragua earthquake 7.6 mag of 1992 barely felt?
the fault move very slowly creating long period energy that created tsunami
How did the Papa New Guinea earthquake in 1998 change our thinking about causes of tsuanmi?
Not all tsunami come from giant earthquakes. Smaller faults can cause unstable sand and rock to fall, causing landslides which also cause tsunami.
How is lake Tahoe dangerous?
There is a 3-4% chance of an earthquake happening there which could cause massive tsunami.
What are the typical period and wavelegths of Tsunami?
60 minute period

520 mile wavelengths
What is more dangerous, a high tsunami or a long tsunami?
Long tsunami continue to rush in for up to 30 minutes. Their momentum is much more dangerous than their height. They look like pancakes.
Tsunami are largest when caused by _____________
impacts from space (several km across)
What are the four main causes of Tsunami?
Streams flow because of __________. Waves in large bodies of water occur most often because of __________________

frictional drag of wind blowing across water
Water orbits cease at a depth of about _____________
1/2 the wavelength
The height of the wave depends on what four things?
velocity of wind
duration of time wind blew
length of water surface (fetch)
consistency of wind direction
The length of the water surface over which wind blows is called ___________
The result of contructive and destructive multiple sets of ocean waves is called_________
sea swell
Extremly tall waves that form from synchronous interference are called _________
rogue waves
Waves break when ________with the sea floor ________the wave and _________the wavelength until the height:length ratio reaches ______.
Also, the depth of water uner a breaker is about ______the wave height, thus the wave crest is moving________than




1.3 times

Why is there no sand in the winter?
Summer waves are shorter and more numerous, pushing sand onto the beach.

Winter waves are stronger and longer wavelenths, pulling the sand away.
The temperature________in the ___________is greater, and the waves get stronger, and have longer wavelengths.
temperature contrast

A great absorber of wave energy is ______________
beach sand in the summer
Waves break when they reach a water depth of about _________their wavelength.
What is the longshore current.
Waves come in at an angle, so the shallower part breaks early, and while the deeper part catches up the shallower end is already pulling sand directly back.
Masses built perpindicular to the coastline are called _____________
groins and jetties
___________interfere with the longshore current and longshore transport. Typically one side gets eroded while the other side gets a pile of sand.
groin and jetties
___________may be attached or unattached to the shoreline and prevent waves from hitting the shoreline. They are often accompanied by a permanent _____________operation to move the sand back into the longshore transport system.

At wavelengths of less than 1.7 cm the wave is a __________wave and the restoring force is usually ______________.

surface tension
At wavelengths of more than 1.7 cm the wave is a __________wave and the restoring force is usually ______________.
Surface Gravity Wave:
Wind Wave, Seiche,

What 3 factors affect the growth of wind waves?
Wind speed
Wind duration
Fetch (uninterrupted distance over which
wind blows)
The Beaufort scale measures _____________
wind speed causing waves
What is the Fully
Developed Sea?
Condition when the wave size are the maximum theoretically possible for a wind of a
specific strength, duration, and fetch.

2-3 meters in Northern Pacific

6 meters year around around Antarctica
What is the difference between currents and waves?
Currents move water; carry mass
and energy
Waves move energy; NO net
movement of the water
Orbital motion of waves __________with depth
What is the wave base?
Where orbital motion goes to zero and depth is half the wavelength.
A deep water wave has wavelength ____________
A Transitional/Intermediate waves is at what depth?

depth greater than L/20
less than L/2
A shallow water wave is when depth is ______________
less then L/20
The speed of a deep water wave is only dependent on it's ___________

Deep water waves are ____persive and shallow water waves are __________persive

The speed of shallow water waves is dependent on ____________
the depth

Shoaling waves begin to feel the bottom at __________. Their height ________and the wavelength __________. The crests peak at ________and become unstable at 3:4. Then the waves turn to ____________





An abrupt bulge of water driven ashore by hurricane/tropical cyclone/typhoon is called__________
storm surge
Water level __________underneath the eye
of a storm because of:
__________and _________

low air pressure

winds rushing towards center creating a mound of water
Surge is technically NOT a ______ it is only a _______!

Most hurricane/typhoon deaths are a result of the_________and people die of ________
storm surge

Tsunami means _________and is incorrectly called a _________in North America
harbor wave

tidal wave
Tsunami are caused by the following five things:
1. Volcanic eruptions
2. Meteor impacts
3. Earthquakes (vertical submarine fault motion)**
4. Landslides
5. Icebergs falling from glaciers

**seismic sea wave
The 1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska tsunami was caused by a __________after an earthquake
In 1883 a tsunami in Krakatoa, Indonesia was caused by a __________
Tsunami were up to 30 m high; 36,000 dead
volcanic eruption - caldera collapse
If you are 750 km from the source you have about _______to evacuate before the tsunami hits.
1 hour
At ____________you have have about 10 minutes to 1 hour to avoid a tsunami
100-750 km
The largest recorded tsunami happened in _______in__________and the 3rd peak was biggest at ________.
1000 died
It travelled across the Pacific Ocean 10,000 km away
and hit ________and ________



Hawaii Japan
In 1963 the Anthropogenic Tsunami in the Italian Alps was caused by __________________
Vaiont Dam construction causing landslide
The largest recorded tsunami in North America happened in _____1964 and is also called the ______________.
It lead to the setup of the International Tsunami Warning
System in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Prince William Sound, Alaska

Good Friday EQ
Tsunami are always ____________waves because the average ocean depth is_________
shallow water waves (D<L/20)

4 km
Tsunami charectistics in the open ocean:

Since H/L is so small ________
200 km
200 m/s or 720 km/hr
0.5 - 1 m
10 min - 1 hour

ships can't detect tsunami in the open ocean
The ________may arrive first, thus may observe receding
sea level first.
trough of a tsunami
A resonant oscillation of water, or oscillating wave on a
lake or landlocked sea is a _____________

(means to sway back and forth)
Rogue waves are notoriou where?
off the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
The water brought up by waves
onto shore usually at an angle to the shoreline is called _______
A beach of fine material means ____water on the beach, ______backwash, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
do not
gradual (1 degree)
A beach of large sediment grain size means, _______percolation on beach, _______backwash, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
steep (24 degrees)
Steeper waves mean a _________beach, H/L is ______, energy, swash and percolation are _________, backwash is _______, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
do not
Smaller waves mean a _________beach, H/L is ______, energy, swash and percolation are _________, backwash is _______, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
Wave refraction is _____________
when a wave bends towards the shore because its shallower end slowed down.
Overtime wave action __________the shore line.
Elongated structures that protrude perpendicular to the shoreline to trap sediments are ____________
Breakwaters that DISSIPATE
wave energy but allow the FLOW of sediments are ___________
tethered floats
Reflecting waves with very little energy loss, __________reflect energy and ERODE sediments until it COLLAPSES
sea walls
The global rise or fall of sea level is called ________seal level change. It is primarily caused by ______________

melting ice sheets

(If remaining
glacial ice melts,
sea level will
increase by
another 60m)
Land rising or subsiding is called____________
isostatic rebound
Due to tectonic movement the Atlantic coast is ___________ & Pacific coast is __________, Sea level rises ____cm/century along N.American east coast.


The global volume of water is increasing due to__________
thermal expansion
In the 20th century, average global SURFACE TEMPERATURE rose by _____C/century
.6 degrees
The Biosphere is _____________
the thin “layer” of life on the Earth’s surface
"What's on top is youngest" is the ______________and was coined by ________in______
The principle of superposition
"Strata of like age can be recognized by the fossils
they contain". This is the ____________coined by __________in ____________
faunal succession
William Smith
Using the appearance and disappearance of fossils to subdivide geological time is called______________________
___________(1769 - 1832)found mammoth remains in____________. This lead to idea of species going __________
George Cuvier
A mass extinction event is when ____% of the world's speciets lost. It must include a _______range of ecologies and must be ________(time frame).
short and sudden.
How many mass extinction have there been and in what period?
5 in the Phanerozoic Eon (includes everything but precambrian)
To common requisites for an organism to become fossilized are _______ and ___________
hard parts - bones, shells, teeth
rapid burial
Are footprints fossils?

What is a fossil?

evidence of former life
What is fossil tree sap called?

What three things does it protect from?

scavengers, water, oxygen
The three major branches of life are______, ________, and ________
archaea - extreme
eukarya (plant, animals)
Photosynthetic bacteria removed surplus carbon dioxide creating ______and therefore our________

technically they gave off 02, which got converted to 03 (the ozone)
Once a species dies out, it _______reappears.
Over ____%of all life that ever lived is now extinct.
Current estimates of Earth's specie diversity are_______
40-80 million
The average lifespan of a species is __________
4 million years
Mass extinctions can be caused by (5 things)
tectonic effects
climate change
impacts from space
biologic processes
Today water is about ____%of the Earth's surface and land is ___%.

Sea level change could increase land percentages to ___% or drop it to____%.

The bigger the glacier, the ______the sea level.
Sea level can be changed by what two processes?
glaciers, created by evaporated ocean water that falls as snow

sea floor spreading
Ice ages happen when land (continents)_____________and catches the snow.
moves close to the poles
Flood basalts can change _______, ________,and _________
sea level, ocean composition and climate
When water at the bottom of the ocean becomes depleted of oxygen (because it is too ______to sink), it is called _________
Biologic causes of extinction include_______________(4 things)
low population size
reduced geographic area
predation (disease)
Life arose about _________years ago
543 million
The worst day for the biosphere was at the ____________change when ____% of all species went extinct in just ________years.
1 million
What caused the Permo/Triassic extinction? (6 things)

1) Continental configuration - drop in diversity
2) Sea level fall - less ocean ridge activity
3) Oceanic stagnation - anoxia
4) Climate change - much drier
5) Siberian Traps - massive volcanic activity:
2 - 3 million km3 basaltic lava
6) Possible impacts
When did the Permo/Triassic extinction happen?

What species replaced the 98% that died? in what time period?
250 million years ago

dinosaurs in the Mesozoic time
What were the three major causes of the Cretaceous extenction?
long-lasting changes to sea level and climate
flood-basalt volcanism
asteroid impact
These two species have lasted _______million years and ________million years respectively.
horshoe crabs 450 million
sharks 350 million
In the last 1.5 million years what type of species is going extinct at a faster than expected rate and why?
large bodied animals

Extinctions of large animals seems to follow the ________of humans. Coexistince (as in ______) seems to have kept many more alive.

They think humans are causing mammal extinctions because________(3 reasons)
More animals than plants went extinct. Why would food go before the eater went?

climate change shouldn't affect mammals with their temperature regulating bodies

retreat of glaciers means more land, there should be more mammals not less
Effects of humans on species extinction began__________
with every human advance in tools, hunting etc - 12,000 years ago and has been increasing
The KT event killed ______% of all species.
Nothing over ___ kg on land survived the KT event.
The KT event killed _______% of marine species.
The KT event has a ___cm thick layer of ______and was discovered by ___________________
Walter and Luis Alverez
What is the source of such high iridium content found globally and relating the era between the Tertiary and the Cretaceous?
What is the main evidence that a meteorite helped wiped stuff out in the KT event?
iridium deposits
What evidence about the KT event comes from fern spores?
Fern Spores vs pollen
⬢ Ferns: first to colonize fire impacted landscape
⬢ Just after K/T have massive spike in fern spores

The fossil record shows an increase from 25% to 100% indicating plant life took a heavy hit, possibly due to burning up from an impact.
What evidence is there that massive global fires happened during the KT event.
Soot layers associated with the iridium layer
What are tektites and what do they tell us?
Glass - produced by
melting rocks during

good evidence of a meteorite impact
What is shocked quartz?
Another “impact” feature
Stress lines in quartz crystals
What are breccia?
melted rocks which lead to the "smoking gun" evidence of a crater in Mexico - meaning a meteorite hit
The Chicxulub Impact Crater was ______km across and had ______deposits, _______and _________
Tsunami deposits,
shocked quartz
The KT asteroid was _____across and hit earth at a _______degree angle
10 km
20-30 degree
Chicxulub means_______
“Tail of the Devil”
Most of “ejecta” of the KT asteroid went towards the __and realsed about __________ Tonnes TNT and _____km3 Rock was vaporized.

6.2 x 107

and 100
Some of the short term effects of the KT event were____________(3)
Vaporizes all close by
Forest Fires

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