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Chapter 13 Changes in teh Western Frontier Section 2

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What does the American cowboy tradition owe to the Mexican vaquero?
They learned from their Mexican neighbors how to round up, rope, brand, and care for animals. The Texas longhorns came from Spanish cattle. Mexican vaquero were the first to wear surs and chaps. Food like jerky came from the Mexican culture.
What developments led to the rapid growth of the cattle industry?
There was a large market for beef in cities where the population continued to grow after the Civil War. At the Chicago Union Stock Yards texas cattlemen heard rumors that their longhorns would be worth 40 a head. So since railroads were starting to be built around in those areas, business was born.
Describe the characteristics and functions of the western cow town which emerged in the late 19c.
There were hostile weather, such as thunderstorms, rough land and rain swollen rivers and farmers who didn't want cattle trampling their crops and spreading disease. Shipping yards were built.
How did the cowboys' life differ from the myth about it?
The cowboys worked 10 to 14 hours a day. Some never even shot anyone. Twenty five percent of cowboys were AA twelve percent were Mexican. Prairie fires and lightning worried him more than Indians and he was more likely to die from a riding accident or pneumonia than from ambush by outlaws.
Why has the romantic myth of the American cowboy proved to be so enduring?
Legendary figures lasted because of stories in popular dime novels. Also there were plays called Scouts of Prairie and Wild West shows. These brought big audiences.
Why did cattle ranchers and sheepherders not get along?
Sheepherders complained that everything in front of a sheep is eaten and everything behind is killed.
What events led to the end of the cattle frontier and the wide-opened West?
Natural disasters like droughts which created prarie fires. Blizards which trapped cattlemen and their herd. Ranchers lost 40 to 90 percent of their livestock. Also the creation of barbed wire replaced cowboys.
longhorns
They were brought by the Spainards, first to the West Indies and then to Mexico. They were sturdy, longhorned, short tempered breeds that were accustomed to the dry grasslands of southern spain.
vaqueros (buckaroos)
cowboys
Abilene, KS
Cattle dealer Joseph McCoy bought grassy land and built pends to hold the cattle for shipping. He also built a three story hotel downdown. A railroad in Abilene ushered in the heyday of cowboy.
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
In 1889 William F. Cody tourned the country with a show tha featured rick riding and roping exhibitions and it thrilled audiences with mock battles between cowboys and indians. The show was even given for Queen Victoria.
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Martha Jane Cannary
("Calamity Jane")
she was an expert markswoman who dressed like a man. SHe spread exaggerated stories about herself and some historians believe she actaully may have been a scout for Colonel George Custer. She was an entertainer on Wild West Shows.
James Butler "Wild Bill"
Hickok
served as a scout and a spy during the Civil War and later was a marshal in Abilene Kansas. He was an entertainer in Scouts of the Prairie.
Chisholm Trail
the major cattle route from San Antonio Texas through Oklahoma to Kansas. Thirty five thousand head of cattle wre shipped out of the yard to Abilene during its first year of operature. Next year 75,000.

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