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MPCS7thHistoryCh3/Colonial America

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What took place in 1619?
the formation of the House of Burgesses - first representative government
What is the constitution?
a formal plan of government
What were the New England Colonies?
they included Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
What were potential settlers of New Jersey promised?
land and religious freedoms as well as representative government and trial by a jury
Which of the Carolinas used slave labor the most?
southern Carolina because most of its settlers were from Barbados - and they had used enslave Africans there to produce sugar
What was Delaware - how did it become a colony?
originally was 3 loweer counties in Pennsylvania; it had been given to Penn because Pennsylvania had no coastline; it seperated in 1704 becoming its own colony
Why were the Carolinas (originally one colony) split?
because of economic differences - the southern part was more prosperous - the people went their separate ways
Who was William Tucker?
he was the first African-American born in the colonies - he was a free man
What were the religious tensions in England?
England had been a Protestant country since 1534 when King Henry VIII broke from the Roman Catholic Church (because he wanted a divorce) and formed the Anglican Church - not everyone agreed with the practices of the Anglicans abd English Catholics were often persecuted
Who was the first baby born in America?
Virginia Dare
What crops were grown in Maryland and why?
first tobacco because it had saved Virginia; then grew corn to avoid becoming too dependent on one crop
Who are the Quakers?
a Protestant group also known as the Society of Friends; they were dissenters; believed everyone was equal; were pacifists - refused to use force or to fight in wars; because of refusal they were fined, jailed, and even executed for their beliefs
Who was King Phillip II?
King of Spain - he sent the Spanish Armada to attack England - lost half of fleet in a storm; attack failed leading to the end of Spanish dominance in Europe
What is the Mason-Dixon line?
a line drawn by British astronomers Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to divide the colonies of Maryland and Pennsylvania (had been fighting for years between the Calvert family and Penn family over the boundary)
What was not allowed in the colony of Georgia (was banned)?
slavery, Catholics, and rum
Why is Roanoke Island called the Lost Colony of Roanoke?
the men, women, and children who settled there disappeared and were never found. When John White left the colony to go to England for supplies, he was delayed for 3 years by the war between England and Spain. When he returned to the colony, no one was there - only thing found was the word Croatoan - which is where it is thought the settlers went in search of food
What did the Separatists want to do?
Protestants who wanted to leave and set up their own churches
What did the Puritans want to do?
Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church
Who saved the colony from the Common Store System and how?
John Smith - declared that anyone who would not work, would not eat
What is a proprietary colony?
one run by individuals or groups to whom land was granted
Why was Pennsylvania given to Penn?
King Charles gave it as a payment for debt
How did the colonist feel about Oglethorpe?
objected to the many rules regulating their lives
What was the original name of New York?
New Amsterdam
Did the Act of Toleration work -was it successful?
no tensions between Protestants and Catholics continued; in 1692 with the support of English government, the Protestant-controlled assembly made the Anglican Church the official church in Maryland (same restrictions now existed for Catholics that existed in England)
What is an indentured servant?
a laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
What country settled in "New York?"
New Netherlands - the Dutch
What was the Anglican Church and who was the head of it?
Church established in England when the King broke away from the Catholic Church (would not allow him to get a divorce); the king or queen was the head of the church
Who was Captain John Smith?
one of the early colonists who saved Jamestown by forcing the settlers to work
Which country increased its power after the destroying of the Spanish Armada?
England
What 2 groups were formed because they were dissatisfied with the Anglican Church?
the Separatists and the Puritans
Why was Jamestown not successful?
the land was swampy and not good for farming,contaminated water, the weather was horrible, many of the settlers were killed by disease such as Malaria, and some of the settlers refused to do their share of the work because they were too lazy or proud
What was the "Starving Time?"
this was the winter of 1609-1610; settlers were forced to remain inside the fort because of attacks by Native Americans, they faced the most severe drought in 770 years, the people were forced to eat cats, dogs, horses, rats, and even cannibalism; of the original 300 settlers - only 60 survived and they were preparing to leave when a supply ship arrived so they stayed
What was the outcome of the attack on New York?
the English sent a fleet to attack and unprepared for battle the governor surrendered the colony to the English forces
What year did Columbus set sail?
1492
Who was Sir Walter Raleigh?
the man who discovered Roanoke Island; he established the 1st settlement which fails; established 2nd settlement which fails
Why did the Pilgrims come to America?
for religious freedom; religious purposes
Why was Maryland founded (for what purpose was this colony founded)?
to establish a safe place for fellow Catholics who were being persecuted in England
What did colonists refer to Oglethorpe as?
our perpetual dictator
What was the Act of Toleration?
law passed by Baltimore to protect Catholics from any attempt to make Maryland a Protestant colony (granted Protestants and Catholics the right to worship freely)
Who bought Manhattan and what was the price in 1626?
Peter Minuit - for $24 in beads (small quantities of beads and other goods)
What happened in 1607?
the establishment of the settlement at Jamestown
Who settled Rhode Island?
colonists forced out of Massachusetts and led by Roger Williams
What is a joint-stock company?
one in which investors buy stock in the company in return for a share of its future profits
What role did the Duke of York play in the creation of New Jersey?
originally part of New York, he gave it to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret who named it after the Island of Jersey in the English Channel
What was Manhattan Island?
because it was blessed with a good seaport, it was used as a center for shipping to/from the Americas
What are burgesses?
elected representatives to an assembly
What is a charter?
a document that gives the holder the right to organize settlements in an area
What is Philadelphia?
it was the "City of Brotherly Love" a "holy experiment" of William Penn's - the city was designed by William Penn (America's first town planner); allowed the Quaker ideas of toleration and equality to be put into practice
What are the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?
the first written Constitution in America - plan of government
Where did the settlers (in New York) settle?
the Hudson River Valley
What is a Puritan?
Protestants, who, during the 1600s wanted to reform the Anglican Church
What is a Separatist?
Protestants, who during the 1600s wanted to leave the Anglican Church in order to found their own churches
What happened in 1587?
Raleigh tried to establish another colony with John White as the leader. When White returned to England for supplies, he was gone for 3 years because England was at war with Spain. When White finally returned lost colony was thought to have gone to Croatoan
What is the Spanish Armada?
a fleet of war ships sent by King Phillip II to invade England
What was discovered on the expedition of Joliet and Marquette?
that the Mississippi River flowed south into the Gulf of Mexico rather than west into the Pacific
Who settled Connecticut?
Thomas Hooker - he led his congregation there because they were dissatisfied with the way the Puritan leaders and Winthrop were running Massachusetts
What happened in 1585?
Sir Walter Raleigh sent 100 men to settle on Roanoke Island - the colony failed
Who settled Massachusetts?
the Puritans - led by John Winthrop
Were early settlements successful?
early settlements were not successful due to the difficult life style (little food, poor farm land, bad weather, disease)
What is a Pilgrim?
Separatists who journeyed to the colonies during the 1600s for religious purposes
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
a woman who dared to question the religious authority of Puritan ministers; she claimed God spoke directly to her; along with followers she went to Rhode Island
What was Bacon's Rebellion?
Virginia government forbade the movement into Native American territory - an attack of angry westerners on Native American villages because they were unwilling to be restricted to the coast
What was the outcome of Oglethorpe's involvement in the colony of Georgia?
he gave up altogether and turned the colony back over to the king
What did Cavelier and de La Salle claim for France as a result of their expedition?
claimed the territory they discovered as Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV - 1718 French governor founded the port of New Orleans
What was the outcome of the English Civil War?
King Charles I was found guilty of treason and was beheaded; leadership of Oliver Cromwell (a Puritan); many Puritans left New England (colonies) to return to England to fight with Parliament's forces; after Cromwell's death the monarchy was restored but with new restrictions
What is toleration?
the acceptance of different beliefs
Why did James Edward Oglethorpe create the colony of Georgia?
for English debtors, to protect the other British colonies from Spanish atttack (buffer colony)
Who founded Maryland?
Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
What were the intentions of the Separaitsts and the Puritans?
the Puritans were Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church and the Separatists wanted to leave and set up their own churches
What was the Common Store System?
agreement that all food would be placed in a common store house; form of Socialism
Why did New Amsterdam change its name?
the Duke of York renamed it - New York
Do the Separatists and Puritans remain in England?
some of the Separatists made arrangements with the Virginia Company to settle in Virginia - they considered themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious purpose.
What were Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette looking for?
water passage to the Pacific Ocean
Who was John Rolfe?
one of the early colonist who learned to grow tobacco which lead to prosperity for the colony; he married Pocahontas
What was the House of Burgesses?
eastablished in 1619 - it was an assembly that had the right to make local laws for the colony; it was the first representative government in America and it set the precednt for later governments
What is persecution?
the harsh treatment of someone because of that person's beliefs or practices
Was New Jersey a profitable colony?
no and the result was it became a Royal Colony owned by the King
How did Pennsylvania get its name?
after William Penn
What did Bacon's Rebellion prove?
settlers were unwilling to be restricted to the coast and there was a need for a militia force to control the Native Americans
Though Spain was one of the first countries to make claims to territories in the New World, what occurred to end Spanish domination of establishing settlements in America?
when the Spanish Armada went head to head with the smaller, swifter English ships - the English won the battle. The Armada fled north to Scotland where violent storms destroyed the fleet
Who was Sir Humphrey Gilbert?
the man who traveled to New Foundland attempting to settle - he went south, but died before making the settlement
What happened when the Pilgrims arrived?
a terrible storm hit as they were trying to reach Virginia; they landed in Massachusetts
What happened to Manhattan Island?
the Dutch West India Company was formed for trade; to increase the number of settlers - the company sent families from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and Finland to live there;

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