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American expansion- slavery debate


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How much money was spent? How much per acre?
15 million dollars apent/ close to 4 cents an acre
How many states were created from this purchase
About 15 states were created
What was the geographical effect of this purchse- in other words, what happened to the United States in relation to grography
The US gained a lot of land, and controlled what is now the US
Explain the economic effect for the United States- how did this acquisiton help the US financially
there was a 15 million dollar debt and people moved other places to help
What did the US recieve from spain? How much money
Recieved all of Florida, and it cost 5 million dollars
What was the Monroe doctrine and who wast the president at this time
A doctrine that states that the Eurpoean coutnries could not own colonies in America. Also, the US has to stay out of Eurpoean affairs. President James monrow was the president who issued this doctrins.
The Monrow Doctrine was issuead after the war of _____.
What happened by the mid-1800s
the south had been an agriculture region for more than 200 years. Unlie norther farmers who grew crops mostle for their own use, southerners traditionall gre staple. or cash crops- crops grown so they can be sold for a profie. From tobacco in early Virginia to rice and indigo in colonial South carolina specidic cash crops were important in certain regions inteh South. By 1850, around 85% of whites and nearly 95% of african-americans in the South worked in agriculture
Explain what caused the demand of cotton throughout the world
The falling prices of tobacco
Explain why growing and selling cotton proved difficult for southern farmers
Weather conditions
Who created the cotton gin and how did it work?
Eli Whitney/ by using stiff brushes and rollers, it seperated the seeds from the cotton, rather than by hand
What factors created the need for the cotton gin
It was extremely difficult to seperate seeds fomr the cotton by hand
How did the North benefit from the invention of the cotton gin
cotton clothing was cheap
How did cotton affect the souths growth and development
they were able to expand their farming land
Explain why the demand for slaves rose after the invention of the cotton gin
it wasn't expensice to use slaves then hire workers
What was the cotton belt and why was it given that name
a large regional area that sold cotton./ it was a long strop like a belt
List the four southen states the produced 70% of the cotton grown in the US
Alabama, Geogia, Mississippi, North carolina
Explain the relation between the exporting of cotton versus tobacco from 1790 to 1850
Cotton continued to grow more og a demand and over passed tobacco
What year did cotton reach its peak in exports? How many million pounds
1840/ 750 million lbs
What was the treaty of paris of 1783
treaty tat officially ended the revolutionary war. In the treaty, Great britain recognized american independence
Explain 2 geographical effects fomr th treary of paris.
West appalachiam mountains to mississippi river- boarders between canada and mexica
what happened in the first half of the 1780s
Congress had yet to find a way to solve several problems that were occurring in the land north of the Ohio River and west of the state of Pennsylvania, an area known then as the Northwest Territory. One such problem was threats by American Indian groups to kill settlers who attempted to move into this area. In addition, British soldiers manned forts on the American side of the Great Lakes. Settlers were hesitant to venture into the Northwest Territory because there was no established government presence in the region.
What was the purpose of the land ordinance?
was to separate the land so it would be able to be sold. (The sale of lands in the western territory)
Outline three provisions of the Land Ordinance
Three provisions of the Land Ordinance were that each township was split up into 640 acres, land would be surveyed into townships, which were 6 miles on each side, and that one section will be reserved for a public school.
Explain the purpose of the Northwest Ordinance
The purpose of the Northwest Ordinance was to create a new government for North Ohio Rover and West Pennsylvania.
Explain what happens when a territory reaches 5, 000 free men.
When a territory reaches 60,000 free inhabitants it becomes eligible for statehood. Also, if they wish they can draft a state Constitution.
What type of government must be established? Define republican form of government.
A republican form of government must be established. Republican government is where the people hold the power but the authorities make the laws and carry them out.(elections in November)
How was slavery handled in the Northwest Ordinance?
In the Northwest Ordinance, slavery was prohibited along with voluntary servitude.
Which branch of government was responsible for approving a future state’s constitution and admittance into the Union?
The congress (legislative branch) was responsible for approving a future state’s constitution and admittance into the Union.
List the states created from the Northwest Ordinance.
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin were formed from the Northwest Ordinance.
what was the three-fifthes compromise
ß The Constitution determined that seats in the House of Representatives would be assigned on the basis of population; a debate arose over whether slaves should be counted in a state’s population.
Explain why a debate arose over this situation. Who would benefit from slaves being counted in a state’s population?
A debate arose on whether slaves should or shouldn’t be counted in the population because the southern delegates felt that they should be counted while the northern states disagreed. If they were being counted the slave states would benefit because since they have a larger population they would have more representatives.
explain the solution from Charles pickney
Charles Pinckney’s solution was to late 3/5 of the free slaves be counted for things such as elections.
Explain why the information in this section is crossed out- you realize this information was not crossed out until December 18, 1865. Go to page 150. Explain what happened December 18, 1865-include the purpose.
The information is crossed out because slavery was abolished in 1865 and the 13th amendment was creating to abolish slavery making things such as the three-fifths compromise unnecessary.
what was oing on at the tie of the revolutionary war
the American South had the largest population. By 1820, however, the North’s population has surpassed that of the South. As a result, the North had a majority in the House of Representatives. When Missouri’s applied in1819 to enter the Union as a slave state, northern members of the House had enough votes to amend Missouri’s constitution to limit slavery in the state.

•In the Senate, however, where each state has two senators, membership was equally divided between the 11 southern states and the 11 northern states. The issue over slavery in Missouri created a deadlock. Neither side wanted to upset the balance slave and free states, thereby giving the other side a majority in the Senate.
If you were a northerner debating the Missouri case, then what previous document dealt with the issue of slavery in the northern states? Which branch of government had the authority to deal with the issue of slavery?
The Northwest Ordinance was the previous document. It dealt with the legislative Branch.
If you were s southerner debating the Missouri case, then which amendment from the first ten deals with the issue of slavery?
The 5th amendment dealt with slavery. Since the 5th amendment deals with property and salves were considered property, this amendment could be used.
Explain the compromise created by Henry Clay. You should mention three parts of the compromise.
The compromise created by Henry Clay was called the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Also, it outlawed slavery in the reset of the Louisiana Purchase and north of the 36˚ 30’ latitude.
Define manifest destiny
Manifest destiny was a phrase used to describe some Americans feelings that the entire North American continent could belong to the US.
•Land acquisition and development (getting more land for agricultural use)
•Nationalism (Americans as superior)
•Democracy (freedom and democracy as a superior system worthy of spreading)
•Religion (bringing Christianity and “civilization” to American Indians)
define annex
to take control
what did president James Polk do
President James Polk (#11) was determined to win the Texas boundary dispute and to acquire New Mexico and California. After having tried unsuccessfully to obtain these territories through diplomacy and pressure, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor (12th president) to advance in the Rio Grande in 1846. Shortly after Taylor did so, a Mexican force attacked one of his patrols. Polk informed Congress. Congress declared war.
Define Bear Flag Revolt. What territory/eventual state did the United States acquire?
Bear Flag Revolts were revolts against Mexico by California settlers who declared the republic of California during the Mexico War. They acquired Texas.
What was the purpose of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexico War and gave the United States Mexican Cession.
How much money did the US give to mexico
a little more then $15 million
What did the US earn in tems of geography?
california, Nevada, Utach, parts of Arizona, New mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming
Define Mexican Cession. Name the Present-day American Southwest states acquired?
Mexican Cession was the territory that Mexico ceded to the United States after the Mexican War.
Define Gadsden purchase
An agreement that added a strip of Mexican land to southern New mexico and Arizona
How much money did the Unites States pay for this 30,000 square miles between Texas and California?
$10 million
list the states evantually carved out of the Gadsden purchase
New Mexico and Arizona
After the Unites States acquired all of this land, what do you think was the debate in Congress between the northern states and the southern states?
The debate against the northern and southern states were whether they were free or slave states
Define popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty was a principle that would let voters in new territories make their own decisions about slavery.
Explain the purpose of the compromise of 1850
The purpose of the Compromise of 1850 was that it settled the slavery debate over the land acquired from Mexico.
Who was responsible for the compromise of 1850
Henry Clay
List 3 seperate details of the Compromise of 1850
⬢California enters the union as a free state.
⬢Voters in New Mexico and Utah would exercise their popular sovereignty to settle the issue of slavery.
⬢Enact a strict law to help slave holders capture runaway slaves.
List the Details of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Who created it?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was federal laws allowing residents of each territory to decide whether slavery would be legal. It was created by Stephen Douglas.
In 1854, officials held an election for the 3,000 voters in the Kansas territory. 6,300 ballots were counted. Explain how the number changed and why?
The number of votes was changed because people from Missouri went into Kansas to vote so more votes would be counted their way. The ballots were illegal, of course, since they were not residents of Kansas. Still their votes were counted.
Explain what happened when the illegal votes were counted. Your answer should include the effects of the Kansas legislature and runaway slaves!
After the illegal voted were counted a large number of delegates elected to the territorial legislature were supported of slavery. Also, new slavery laws were put into place such as death penalty for anyone helping the runaway slaves.
What did free-soil Kansans do in response to the actions of the pro-slavery government?
In response, free-soil Kansas made their own government, which led to fighting.
Explain what happened in November 1855.
In November 1855 a pro-slavery man killed a free-soil Kansas man. Late, the killers cabin was set on fire.
•With two governments claiming to rule the same territory, fighting soon broke out. Both sides took up arms.
•Abolitionists began shipping guns to antislavery forces so they could defend themselves. Reverent Hendy Beecher Stowe- “Beecher’s Bibles”
Explain how the Republican Party was established. What was their main goal dealing with slavery?
The Republican Party was established to oppose the spread of slavery in the north.
•The controversy over slavery in the territories produces major shifts in the nation’s political parties.
•The Republican Party was created in 1854, partly in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Acct. The party wanted to stop the expansion of slavery into the western territories.
*The party nominates its first presidential candidate in 1856. Just four years later, Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican president.
•The Republican Party dominated national politics from the Civil Was in the 1860s until the Great Depression in the 1930s.
Explain who was Dred Scott and how did his case make it to the Supreme Court.
Dred Scott was a slave who once lived in free states. After his owner died, he argues that he should be free because those states opposed slavery. Unfortunately, since he was not truly a citizen he had no right to sue.
Explain why the Supreme Court declared that Scott has no right to sue.
The Supreme Court said he had no right to sue because at that time African-Americans were not considered American citizens so he would be unable to sue.
Explain how the Fifth Amendment played a role in the court’s decision.
The Fifth Amendment played a role in this because it dealt with property and slaves were considered property.
Explain how the ruling affected the Northwest ordinance, the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and Congress passing laws limiting slavery in western territories.
The court ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, which later brought in the Kansas-Nebraska act. The Northwest Ordinance was declared unconstitutional. In the future, Congress could not pass laws limiting in the western territories.
How did Lincoln and Douglas differ in their views in the expansion of slavery into the western territories?
Lincoln opposed slavery extension of slavery into western territories, and Douglas supported popular sovereignty for the western territories.
Abraham Lincoln first rose to national prominence as a member of which political party?
Lincoln was a supportive member of the Whig Party. He was known as a member of the Republican Party
What did the Freeport Doctrine argue?
The Freeport Doctrine argued that the people of a territory could outlaw slavery by passing local laws making it impossible for slavery to exist.
Douglas meant that since territorial legislatures had the power to write local laws, they could either support slavery or make it impossible for the institution to exist.
Cause and Effect- Why did so many pro-slavery southerners support Douglas, and why did they stop supporting him after he stated his Freeport Doctrine.
Southerners supported Douglas until the Freeport Doctrine was established because he was for slavery until he made these laws because they made it difficult for slavery to exist.
Review question from chapter 13-section 4- Who was elected president of the United States in 1860? Political Party? What was the goal of the party? Which states did he win or carry? Explain how he won the election.
Lincoln was elected in 1860. He was part of the Whig party. His goal was to abolish slavery. It carried the Northern states. He won be receiving the most number of electoral votes, which was 180.
What happened in Congress in the 1850s that upset the balance of political power between northern states and southern states? How many seats did the free states gain in the House of Representatives between 1840-1860?
In the 1850s three new free states than slave states, which upset the slave states. 20 seats were gained for free states but three were lost in the slave states.
In 1860, did the United States consist of more slave or free states? Explain how this situation affected the Senate.
There were more free states in the 1860s. There were more free state senators voting against slavery.
Define secede. How many states from the Union? List the states in order of secession including the moth,, day, and year after Lincoln’s election, but before he took office in march.
Secede means formally withdrawing as part of the nation. Seven states seceded from the union. On December 20th 1860 South Carolina seceded. By February 1st 1861 Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Texas all seceded.
In February 1861, the states of the Lower South formed the ___. (Or the “Confederacy” for short)
•Name the city and state for the capital of the Confederacy. The Confederate capital moved in May 1861, name the city and state.
•Who was t
In February 1861, the states of the Lower south formed the Confederate States of America. The capital was Montgomery, Alabama and the President was Jefferson Davis. Before becoming President, he wrote the constitution. The capital was later moved to Richmond, Virginia.
Cause: Confederate soldiers from South Carolina attacked and captured Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Civil war officially started. Effect:??? You clue is President Lincoln
The effect of South Carolina attacking and capturing Fort Sumter, was that Lincoln called for 75,000 soldiers.
cause: Your effect in #6 now becomes the cause in #7. Write it down! Remember, your clue was President Lincoln. Effect: ??? Your clue is April and May1861.
The cause from that effect was the four more states seceded from the union. Also, the confederate congress called for 100,000 men.
List the four states plus day and year from the Upper South that seceded in April and May.
The four states that seceded from the union were Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. They seceded in April and May 1861.
Define border state. What did they have in common? How many border States during the Civil War. List the Border States.
A boarder state was a state that fought no both sides. Those states were Montana, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. They all separated the union from the Confederate States.
Explain why the location and loyalty of the Border States were important.
The location was important because it split up the Confederate and union states.
Write north next to the resources that were northern strengths in the Civil War and Couth next to those that were southern strengths. Then explain how each would be an advantage in fighting in a war.
a. Population-North- more help and army
b. Factories (North) and crops (south)- food and resources
c. Military tradition-South-more experience and strategy
d. Railroads (North)- transportation which is quicker than horse
e. Geography- South- location to attack and set camp
f. Morale- South- more support from the people.
What did John Brown hope to accomplish by capturing the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia?
John Brown hoped to accomplish to free nearby slaves and seize land.
On October 16, 1859, John Brown and about 20 followers captured the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. They hoped to spark a slave uprising throughout the South.
John Brown was the radical abolitionist who in 1856 had previously led seven other men to murder pro-slavery settlers in the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas 1856.
How did some northern abolitionists react to John Brown’s plan to begin a slave uprising in the South?
Northern abolitionists reacted to John Brown’s plan by helping to fund the program.
After his arrest, other abolitionists viewed Brown as a hero who was justly fighting for the freedom of enslaved people. Most moderate northerners condemned Brown’s actions.
Though Brown expected slaves from all over the region to join his uprising, he had not informed them of his plans. No slaves joined the attack on Harpers Ferry, and local and federal militia companies soon captured or killed most of the Brown’s followers.
Brown was tried and hanged for treason conspiracy, and murder on December 2, 1859
How did most southerners view John Brown’s raid?
Southerners vied Brown’s raid by protesting because they were against it. Most southerners were angry at the support Brown received both before and after the attack on Harpers Ferry. The sympathy that many northerners expressed toward Brown deeply angered many southerners.
What effect did John Brown’s raid have on the political divisions between the North and South?
The effect of the raid on the political divisions of the north and south was that they realized more of a difference between them and caused more hatred.
Once again, northerners and southerners looked at each other with increasing suspicion, fear, and even hatred. Southerners became less willing to maintain a union with northerners who openly supported slave rebellions and the murder of slaveholders. Many southerners became convinced hat they had no future in the union. Reactions to the raid led increased tensions and a climate ripe for further conflict and even secession.
How many political parties and candidates were involved in the presidential election of 1860?
Three political parties and four candidates were involved in the Presidential election of 1860.
Political parties and candidates
Northern democrats- Stephen A. Douglas
Southern Democrats- John C. Breckinridge
Republicans- Abraham Lincoln
Constitutional Union Party- John Bell
Who wont the Presidential election of 1860? What states did he win? How many electoral voted did he receive? How many electoral voted for the entire nation? He didn’t win a single southern state; so explain how he won the Presidential Election of 1860.
Lincoln won the 1860 election. He won OR, CA, MN, IA, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, and half of NJ. All free states except for NJ. He received 180 electoral votes. There were 303 voted for the entire nation. Because the northern states had a larger population, there were more electoral voted for each state. However, the southern electoral votes were less.
Lincoln not only didn’t win in any southern states, he wasn’t even on the ballot in most of them. A state’s population determines how many electoral votes it gets.
How did the people of the South react to Lincoln’s winning the election?
The people of the south didn’t think the political system was fair after Lincoln was elected.
Although southerners recognized that Lincoln had been legally elected, they questioned the fairness of a system that allowed him to govern regions that had not chosen him.
Southerners began discussing how having an antislavery president would affect slaver, and they struggles with dual loyalties to the South and the Union.
define secession
Secession is the act of formally withdrawing as a part of a nation.
Secession: the withdrawal from the union of the 11 southern states in 1860-1861 that led to the formation of the Confederacy and the beginning of the Civil War.
Explain two reasons how southerners justified secession.
The southerners justified secession by sing the idea of states sovereignty. Also, they said that they first 13 states existed separately before they were formed into one.
The original 13 states had existed separately before they joined together to form the United States. The states then drafted and approved the U.S. Constitution. Because the states had once been independent, southerners argued, each states had the right to withdraw its allegiance to the Constitution if its citizens to do so.
Many southerners wanted to leave the Union because of their loyalty to the South and to the system of slavery. Southerners feared that their social and economic well-being would be threatened under Lincoln, who disapproved of slavery. In addition, their loyalty to the union had been weakened by years of being criticized in the national debate over slavery.
Explain two reasons northerners were against secession.
The northerners say secession as a challenged to the basic principles of the constitution. Also, they have all accepted federalism.
They argued that the Constitution bound all the states together by mutual consent, meaning the states had voluntarily recognized the Constitution as the supreme law of the land.
First state to secede from the Union was?
South carolina
Can you understand why southern states felt they had lost their voice in the deferral government?
Southern states felt that they lost their voice in federal government because the southern population was decreasing while the northern increasing.
Fugitive slave act of 1850
1. Anyone caught hiding runaway slaves faced six months in jail and a
$1, 000 fine per slave.

2. All citizens, even abolitionists in the North, were required to help capture runaway slaves when ordered to do so by law.

3. The law provided that persons accused of being escaped slaves could not testify in their own defense.
♦ Runaways and even African American northerners who had never been slaves felt threatened, and many left the United States for Canada.

♦ Influenced northern whites, many of who were prejudiced against people of African descent, free or slave. Yet in spite of these prejudices, some also sympathized with runaways who had risked their lives to win freedom.

♦ An additional concern was that free African Americans in the North would be falsely sent into slavery under the new law.
ß Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin tells the story of a kind and gentle slave named Tom, who is eventually sold to the cruel master of a Louisiana cotton plantation. This man has Tom beaten, and the long-suffering slave dies of his injuries. The novel was a criticism of the slave system’s viciousness and inhumanity.
ß The book was published in March 1852. About 300,000 copies were sold the first year of its publication. Many northerners were shocked and dismayed by what was portrayed in the novel-detailed scenes showing the brutality of slavery. The novel also showed the common and cruel practice of breaking up slave families, which many northerners found mean and unfeeling. Northerners had been able to ignore slavery because it was so far away, but Uncle Tom’s Cabin brought it into their parlors. Because it successfully appealed to readers’ emotions and sense of moral outrage, the novel was a huge success. It touched the feelings of many northerners and helped harden public opinion against slavery and any compromise with the slave states.
ß Most southerners were deeply offended by the novel. They claimed it was an unfair picture of the slave system and an example of northern prejudice.
ß Stowe was inspired to write Uncle Tom’s Cabin because of her objections to the new Fugitive Slave Act, which was part of the Compromise of 1850.

ß The antislavery movements and antislavery literature common in the North also inspired Stowe at this time.
ß Unlike many other abolitionist writers, Stowe told a realistic but fictional story rather than the analyzing ideas and philosophy. She appealed to individual senses. She appealed to individual senses of right and wrong created characters and scenes that stirred readers’ emotions. Her writing moved sympathetic readers to speak out louder and more often against the cruelties of slavery. Because of the emotional impact of its images, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is often cited as one of the most important 19th century American literary works.
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson
Details on the writing of the Declaration of Independence
ß Thomas Jefferson, the primary writer of the Declaration, greatly admired the writings of John Locke, an English philosopher of the 1600s. Locke was an Enlightenment thinker who believed that society and politics, just like the natural world, were governed by certain unchanging rules. If you observed society and politics carefully and asked questions about them in a scientific way, you could identify these rules, or natural laws. You could then use these natural laws to improve not only society and politics, but also people’s lives. Locke’s theories, which were based on the belief that human progress was possible, including the following:

ß People have a right to life, liberty, and property. This means that people have a right to live without threat to their lives, that they have a right to certain freedoms, including the choice of who governs them, and that their property should be protected from others and from the government.

ß To create a government, the people agree to give up some rights in return for the government’s protection of their natural rights – life, liberty, and property.

ß If the government fails to protect those rights, the people have a right to change or even overthrow their government. Locke believed that a government could exist only as long as the people it governed agreed to be governed. This was a radical idea in an age of kings who believed that God chose them to rule.

ß Jefferson drew upon Locke’s theories as he wrote the Declaration of Independence. He defined a just government as one in which the people had the power, which they granted to the government to protect their natural rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
What are the two parts of the Declaration of Independence?
ß The Declaration of Independence consists of two parts. The first part states ideas drawn from Locke’s writings, about why people need government and what makes a just government. The second part is a series of statements accusing King George III of actions so unjust that they force the American colonies to revolt and declare their independence. (For example: Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Intolerable Acts, Quartering Acts, etc. – these actions are discussed in your textbook pages 84 – 88.)
What does the first part of the Declaration of Independence say about the rights of the people?
ß The first paragraph discuss the natural rights of people, what makes a good government, and under what conditions people have a right to overthrow an unjust government. According to Jefferson, people have certain natural, or “unalienable, “ rights. To protect these rights, people form governments – in our case a republican form of government. When the government threatens these natural rights, the people have the right to change the government, by force if necessary.
What phrase in the Declaration of Independence has been the subject of much debate?
the second paragraph, Jefferson writes, “all men are created equal.” This principle was clearly not true in the 1700s. Women and African Americans did not have the same rights as white males. Women could not vote and in many cases could not own property. African Americans were subjected to slavery and had no political rights. Yet people found these words forceful at the time and in later years they were used as a moral argument for abolishing slavery and extending civil rights to women and African Americans.
Why did the writers of the Declaration of Independence feel it necessary to justify their actions?
ß Breaking away from Britain was considered a radical and dangerous act by most British, and even by many Americans. Much of the world was ruled kings and queens who believed that God had chosen them to rule. Consequently, the authors of the Declaration of Independence defended their actions. The second part of the Declaration justifies the American cause by accusing King George III of many wrongs against the colonies. This part of the document was written to persuade colonists that Britain was in the wrong and to change their natural feelings of loyalty to the king.
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