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History: Unit VII - WWII


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Clark Memorandum
Made in 1930-It repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (US wouldn't bother Latin America). Secretary of State J. Ruben Clark talked about it.
J. Ruben Clark
"United States does not have the right to intervene with neighboring states"--He was contradictory because he "still had the right to play Robin Hood"
Japanese Occupation of Manchuria
Occured after the Nine and Four power treaties--Japanese did it mainly out of agression
Munich Conference
Hitler wanted to take the German/Czechoslovakia area. England and France agreed, because he promised he would only take the part of Czech that once was Germany. He lied. Chamberlain called this Appeasement, but it was really a bad thing.
Molotov-Ribbentrov Pact
Between Russia and Germany--Stopped the Nazis from fighting a two-front war (west front was in temporary agreement)
Lend-Lease Act
Roosevelt pushed this...It was used to lend weapons to anyone fighting against Germany. It passed, but with a lot of resistance.
Montevideo Conference
Where Cordell Hull signed his Non-intervention pledge. (Sc of State)
Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
Mussolini wanted more land for the Italians, so he took over Ethiopia. Haile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia, called on League of Nations for help. They didn't do anything.
Spanish Civil War
Had to do with Fascism in Spain...They Fascist did not want Catholic Spain to have a say-so in government.
Axis alliance Formed
In 1937, the three totaliatarianism nations signed an Anti-Comintern pact...with Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis. It was originally aimed at the Soviets, but it was danger for the world.
Chiang Kai-Shek
Anti communist supporter during the Chinese confrontations. Mao-Zedung/TseTung was the Communist supporter. He put up a fight but lost
German Annexation of Austira...there was not a lot of resistance.
Quarantine Policy
Give weapons, unrestricted, to China, because they can "Quarantine" Japanese aggression for us.
Four Freedoms
What Roosevelt said we had...After election of 1940.
a) Freedom of Speech and expression
b) Freedom of Religion
c) Freedom from Want
d) Freedon from Fear
Atlantic Charter
What US and Britian agreed to before becoming Allies
a) Four Freedoms
b) Neither Countries will claim Colonies
c) No territory changes against will of inhabitants
d) All countries have rights to raw materials and markets
e) Economic Cooperation
f) Freedom of the Seas
g) Disarmament (reduce military)
Fair Employment Practices Committee--

Formed when A. Phillip Randolph (black labor leader) said he'd start a march on Washington if Roosevelt did not do something about the lack of labor for blacks. It was highly successful...raised employment rates, but it did not solve the problem
Charles de Gaulle
Headed up the free French (French Resistance)...Enemy of the Vichy government (Nazi France w/ Paris). FDR ignored him, basically, because he did not have control over French territories.
Casablanca Conference
Where Roosevelt joined up with Churchill to declare "unconditional surrender" (Allies would fight until the Axis powers were completely defeated)
Teheran Conference
Cordell Hull won Russian agreement to participate in world organization...
So there was the Conference (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) in Iran...saying that they would stick together and that Russia would enter the war against Japan when Germany was defeated.
Eisenhower chose the Normandy Penninsula for invasion--It was scheduled for June 5, but the weather was bad, so on June 6, they invaded the beach head and started pushing back the German forces
Yalta Conference
When US, Britain, and Russia met again...Stalin drove hard bargains.
* Kept communist dominions
* Let them have free elections
* Stalin would enter war 3 months after Germany was defeated
Soviets defenitely had the upper hand
Death of Roosevelt
After Yalta Conference, Roosevelt got sicker...two months after he returned from Yalta, he went to Warm Springs, Georgia. He was sitting for a portrait, he complained of a bad headache, and died.
Bombing of Hiroshima
Used Atomic Bomb...incinerated of 4 square miles of city. This is when only US was part of it, and so was Britian
Bombing of Nagasaki
Russia joined the war against Japan, and the day after Russia joined, we bombed.
VJ Day
The Japanese Emperor himself broke a deadlock in the cabinet and persuaded his ministers to surrender on August 14, 1945. Three weeks later, Japan signed a formal agreement on the battleship Missouri in Tokyo bay
Gerald P. Nye
Headed up a special investigation of US Munitions makers after arms dealers in Germany and England were highly criticized. His committee also discovered that huge profits were made, and that those firms were responsible of American intervention in WWI
Ludlow Referendum
Senator Louis Ludlow proposed that there should be a national referendum, or vote, before Congress could declare war. Luckily, it was not passed.
Neville Chamberlain
British Representative in the Munich conference...Called agreement to Hitler's takeover appeasement, and he was proud of it. But, since the takeover ended dishonestly, appeasement because a pejorative term.
America First Committee
Opposed the White Committee by saying that giving Britian aid would be a disadvantage to America in the long run, because they were isolationists.
White Committee
Headed by William Allen White...said that we should assist England in any way possible during the war, because we would be next on Hitler's list. It Opposed America First Committee
Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister during WWII...met up with Roosevelt at the Casablanca Conference and made a pact with Roosevelt and Stalin to defeat the Nazis. Everything up until DDay, he was in charge of for Britain
George C. Marshall
Chief of Staff who led army planners along with Eisenhower. He also placed Eisenhower in charge of implementing the D-Day plan.
Douglas MacArthur
Checked Japan in the pacific. He was based in Australia, and he moved to New Guinea and back to the Phillipines. At the end, he cleared out New Guinea in 1944 and went to the Phillipines
Chester Nimitz
From Hawaii--was directed at key Japanese Islands in the Central Pacific. At the end, he took Gilbert, Caroline, and Marshall Islands, and he secured bases and airfields for US bombers.
"Destroyers for Bases Deal"
It was a pact with England saying that we would give them war ships if they let us use our naval bases.
Office of Price Administration -- tried to curb inflation by using the rationing system. Rationed foods like sugar, canned food, and shoes. It clashed with the WPB
War Production Board -- Donald Nelson headed it up, as an excecutive from Sears. He was pretty easygoing, and it was manipulated by the army and navy. It allowed businesses to claim deprication and tax credits, to ultimately make more production.
Donald Nelson
Man who headed up the WPB...kind of easygoing, and the government manipulated him a whole lot. Roosevelt appointed him.
James Byrnes
Headed an Office of Economic Stabilitization. He was a SC senator and a Supreme Court Justice...he settled disputes and kept everyone happy.
A. Philip Randolph
Was a black labor leader who threatened a March on Washinton if Roosevelt did not stop racial discrimination for jobs. Therefore, he created the FEPC. It helped a lot
Erwin Rommel
Had the Afrika Korps...they pushed back the British in the beginning of the war and they threatened the Suez Canal
Omar Bradley
Breakthrough of D-Day attack--when he SMASHED the enemy with artielliary (he was a general) and aerial bombardment and Saint-Lo. He made a Gap for Geore Patton's 3rd army. He also led the way to Berlin
George Patton
After Omar Bradley Opened the way, he and his troops raced across France, freeing Paris and capturing Germans, until they got to the Rhine river.
Manhattan Project
Project used to develop the Atomic Bomb. It was highly secret. It was placed in Chicago, Oak Ridge, Hanford, Washington, and New Mexico.
Thomas E. Dewey
Ran against Roosevelt in 1944. He was govenor of NY, and tried to put Roosevelt down. And he said that Democrats were soft on Communism. He also avoided some UN issues
Dwight D. Eisenhower
He was a young General, put in his job by George C. Marshall. He wanted, at first, to do a full scale invasion of France at the beachhead, but Britian was afraid of that. In the end, the attacked Normandy peninsula, and did his job, and won the beachhead
German Occupation of the Rhineland
Hitler took over Berlin in Germany with an 80% approval vote. This began his journey through Europe
German Invasion of Poland
After Hitler took back all of Czech...France and England got pissed, and after he invaded Poland, they Declared war. Thus, there was War in Europe

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