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History 122 FE


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fx Monopoly (Rockefeller)
Standard Oil gradually gained almost complete control of oil production in America. At that time, many legislatures had made it difficult to incorporate in one state and operate in another. As a result, Rockefeller and his partners owned separate companies across dozens of states, making their management of the whole enterprise rather unwieldy. In 1882, Rockefeller's lawyers created an innovative form of partnership to centralize their holdings, giving birth to the Standard Oil Trust. The partnership's size and wealth drew much attention. Despite improving the quality and availability of kerosene products while greatly reducing their cost to the public (the price of kerosene dropped by nearly 80% over the life of the company), Standard Oil's business practices created intense controversy. The firm was attacked by journalists and politicians throughout its existence, in part for its monopolistic practices, giving momentum to the anti-trust movement.
fx Plessy v Ferguson: Facts: In 1890, Louisiana passed a law that required blacks to ride in separate railroad cars. Homer Plessy, a carpenter in Louisiana who was seven-eighths Caucasian, was chosen to test the constitutionality of the law. On June 7, 1892, Plessy boarded a train and sat in a car reserved for whites. He refused to move and was arrested. A local judge ruled against Plessy. What as the decision in the case?
The case was appealed to the Supreme Court and in 1896, it upheld the lower courts ruling. It held that "separate but equal" accommodations did not violate Plessy's rights and that the law did not stamp the "colored race with a badge of inferiority." This decision paved the way for segregation.
fx The Marshall Plan (from its enactment, officially the European Recovery Program [ERP])
was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the allied countries of Europe, and repelling communism after World War II. The initiative was named for Secretary of State George Marshall and was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan.
fx The Platt Amendment
Approved on May 22, 1903, the Platt Amendment was a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.
fx The Berlin Airlift - Post war Germany was divided into three sections--the Allied part was controlled by the United States, Great Britain and France and other part by the Soviet Union. The city of Berlin, although located in the eastern Soviet half, was also divided into four sectors --West Berlin occupied by Allied interests and East Berlin occupied by Soviets. In June 1948, the Soviet Union attempted to control all of Berlin by cutting surface traffic to and from the city of West Berlin. Starving out the population and cutting off their business was their method of gaining control.
The Truman administration reacted with a continual daily airlift which brought much needed food and supplies into the city of West Berlin. This Airbridge to Berlin lasted until the end of September of 1949---although on May 12, 1949, the Soviet government yielded and lifted the blockade.
fx A coup d'état (also coup)
the sudden, illegal overthrowing of a government by a part of the state establishment — usually the military — to replace the executive branch of the stricken government, either with another civil government or with a military government.
fx Blitzkrieg (German, literally Lightning war or flash war)
a popular name for an offensive operational-level military doctrine which involves an initial bombardment followed by the employment of mobile forces attacking with speed and surprise to prevent an enemy from implementing a coherent defense. The founding principles of these types of operations were developed in the 20th century by various nations, and adapted in the years after World War I, largely by the German Wehrmacht, to incorporate modern weapons and vehicles as a method to help avoid the stalemate of trench warfare and linear warfare in future conflicts.
fx Schenck v. United States
The defendant, Charles Schenck, a Socialist, circulated a flyer to recently drafted men. The flyer, which cited the Thirteenth Amendment's provision against "involuntary servitude," exhorted the men to "assert [their] opposition to the draft," which it described as a moral wrong driven by the capitalist system. The circulars proposed peaceful resistance, such as petitioning to repeal the Conscription Act.
fx The migration of Blacks north
The Great Migration differed from previous migrations in that it was a movement directly from the rural South to the urban North. Railroads and black sleeping car porters were an important link between rural black communities and northern cities. Pullman porters on the Illinois Central Railroad distributed the Chicago Defender, a black newspaper, on their trips south and facilitated the migration of fellow blacks to Chicago. In the cities of the North, vast black ghettos appeared. Chicago's black population grew from 44,000 in 1910 to 110,000 in 1920.
fx Railroad Regulation
During the "Gilded Age" of the 1880s and 1890s, the influence of large-scale corporations dominated not just the U.S. Congress but also the courts. Nowhere was this more evident than in the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the 1886 Wabash case, excerpted below. With Wabash, the Court overturned its 1879 decision (Munn v. Illinois) allowing states to regulate railroads. Perverting the original intent of the Fourteenth Amendment, the Court decreed that corporations were legally "persons" entitled to the Amendment's protections.
fx What was Hayes' most controversial domestic act -- apart from ending Reconstruction --
It came with his response to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, in which employees of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad walked off the job and were joined across the country by thousands of workers in their own and sympathetic industries. When the labor disputes exploded into riots in several cities, Hayes called in federal troops, who, for the first time in U.S. history, fired on the striking workers, killing more than 70.
fx Describe the Compromise of 1877
The compromise essentially stated that Southern Democrats would acknowledge Hayes as President, but only if the Republicans acceded to various parts, specifically: 1. The removal of all Federal troops from the former Confederate States. (Troops only remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process.); 2. The appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes' administration. (David M. Key of Tennessee was Postmaster General). Hayes had already promised this; 3. The construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South (this had been part of the "Scott Plan" which initiated the process which led to the final compromise); and 4. Legislation to help industrialize the South. Points 1 and 2 took effect almost immediately; 3 and 4 never happened.
fx Social Darwinism
is the idea that Charles Darwin's theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i.e. that just as competition between individual organisms drives biological evolutionary change (speciation) through "survival of the fittest" (not a scientific term itself), competition between individuals, groups, nations or ideas drives social evolution in human societies.
fx Rutherford B. Hayes
was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876. Losing the popular vote to his opponent, Samuel Tilden, Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission.
fx The migration of Blacks to the North
The onset of the Great Migration--the mass movement of black people from the rural areas of the South to the cities of the North--came in the 1890s, as black men and women left to settle in eastern coastal cities such as Philadelphia and New York. The single largest movement of African-Americans occurred during World War I when approximately 500,000 people moved from the rural and small-town South into the cities of the North and the Midwest.
fx At the end of the Spanish-American War in 1898, the United States found itself in control of several overseas territories, including Cuba. In April of 1898, Senator Henry M. Teller, of Colorado, proposed an amendment to the United States' declaration of war against Spain, which stated that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba. It was called the _________ ____________.
Teller Amendment. It asserted that the United States "hereby disclaims any disposition of intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island except for pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the island to its people."
fx Problems building the Panama Canal
When building the Panama Canal the project faced three problems that could keep it from completion: engineering, sanitation, and organization. John F. Stevens and Col. George C. Goethals solved the problems of engineering and organization. Col. William C. Gorgas overcame the final problem, sanitation, combating the diseases of malaria and yellow fever so the workers would stay healthy. By 1905, Colonel Gorgas had cleaned up the area and improved sanitary conditions so that construction could begin.
fx The Populist Party (also known as the People's Party)
was a relatively short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. It flourished particularly among western farmers, based largely on its opposition to the gold standard. Although the party did not remain a lasting feature of the political landscape, many of its terms have. The very term "populist" has since become a generic term in U.S. politics for politics which appeals to the common in opposition to established interests.
fx The Platt Amendment, cont.
The Platt Amendment stipulated the conditions for U.S. intervention in Cuban affairs and permitted the United States to lease or buy lands for the purpose of the establishing naval bases (the main one was Guantánamo Bay) and coaling stations in Cuba. It barred Cuba from making a treaty that gave another nation power over its affairs, going into debt, or stopping the United States from imposing a sanitation program on the island. Specifically, Article III required that the government of Cuba consent to the right of the United States to intervene in Cuban affairs for "the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the Treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the Government of Cuba." The Platt Amendment supplied the terms under which the United States intervened in Cuban affairs in 1906, 1912, 1917, and 1920. By 1934, rising Cuban nationalism and widespread criticism of the Platt Amendment resulted in its repeal as part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America. The United States, however, retained its lease on Guantánamo Bay, where a naval base was established.
fx Tonkin Gulf resolution
in U.S. history, Congressional resolution passed in 1964 that authorized military action in Southeast Asia. On Aug. 4, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin were alleged to have attacked without provocation U.S. destroyers that were reporting intelligence information to South Vietnam. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers decided upon immediate air attacks on North Vietnam in retaliation; he also asked Congress for a mandate for future military action. On Aug. 7, Congress passed a resolution drafted by the administration authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia.
fx Laissez-Faire (French, "let things alone")
in economics, policy of domestic nonintervention by government in individual or industrial monetary affairs. The doctrine favors capitalist self-interest, competition, and natural consumer preferences as forces leading to optimal prosperity and freedom. It arose in the late 18th century as a strong liberal reaction to trade taxation and nationalist governmental control known as mercantilism.
fx The Korean War
Korea had been invaded numerous times over the centuries by both China and Japan, with the Chinese influence having a more lasting effect on Korean culture. After defeating China in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, the Japanese forces remained in Korea, occupying strategically important parts of the country. Ten years later, they defeated the Russian navy in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), contributing to Japan's emergence as an imperial power.[18] The Japanese continued to occupy the peninsula against the wishes of the Korean government, expanded their control over local institutions through force, and finally annexed Korea in August 1910.
fx The United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. The United Nations was founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, in the hope that it would intervene in conflicts between nations and thereby avoid war.
fx President Wilson's 14 points
The U.S.A joined the Allies fighting the Central Powers in 1917. By early 1918, it was clear that the war was nearing its end. The Fourteen Points in the speech were based on the research of the "Inquiry," a team of about 150 advisers led by Colonel Edward M. House, Wilson's foreign policy advisor, into the topics likely to arise in the anticipated peace conference.
fx The Cuban Missile Crisis
was the military confrontation among the United States of America, the Soviet Union, and Cuba when the Cold War threatened to become a nuclear war.
fx Nativism
is an opposition to immigration which originated in United States politics. Although opposition to immigration is inherent to any country with immigration, the term nativism has a specific meaning. Strictly speaking, nativism distinguishes between Americans who were born in the United States, and individuals who have immigrated - 'first generation' immigrants.
fx Robber Baron
was a term revived in the 19th century in the United States as a pejorative reference to businessmen and bankers who dominated their respective industries and amassed huge personal fortunes, typically as a direct result of pursuing various allegedly anti-competitive or unfair business practices.
fx Panama Canal - engineering problems were enormous.
Because the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are at different elevations, a series of three sets of water-filled chambers, called locks, that raise and lower ships from one level to the next, had to be excavated and constructed.
fx The Atlanta Compromise
Booker T Washington's stance became known as "accommodationist," in a sense that it gave up on political protest and avoided a direct assault on white supremecy.
fx Jim Crow Laws
were racial segregation laws in the South that were imposed on African Americans. They were similar to Black Codes, which were restrictive laws enforced on newly freed slaves after the Civil War. Jim Crow laws banned blacks from such places as restaurants, hospitals, parks, schools, and barber shops. The outcome of these laws resulted in the creation of separate drinking fountains, public facilities, and entrances for blacks.
fx Solid South
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the Democratic party regained political control of the eleven former Confederate states. Denying the vote to African Americans and intimidating "carpetbaggers" (Southern Republicans, originally from the North, who got their nickname from their luggage made of carpet fabric), Democrats effectively eliminated the Republican party as a political force in the Southern states. For the next century, winning the Democratic primary in a Southern state meant winning the general election. Southerners also repeatedly reelected their senators and representatives, which enabled them to gain seniority in Congress. As a result, whenever the Democrats held the majority in the Senate or House, Southern Democrats tended to chair the most important committees. The "solid South" held its strongest grip on Congress between the 1930s and 1960s. Then the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 alienated many white Southerners from the Democratic party.
fx The Spanish Civil War
was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of the Second Spanish Republic. The Civil War devastated Spain from July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939, ending with the victory of the rebels and the founding of a dictatorship led by the Nationalist General Francisco Franco. The supporters of the Republic, or Republicans (republicanos), gained the support of the Soviet Union and Mexico, while the followers of the Rebellion, also called Nationalists (nacionales), received the support of the major European Axis powers of Italy and Germany. The United States remained officially neutral, but sold airplanes to the Republic and gasoline to the Francisco Franco regime.
fx The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
was a operation whereby allegedly a pair of attacks were carried out by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American destroyers,
fx John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (July 8, 1839 - May 23, 1937)
was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history. Standard Oil was convicted in Federal Court of monopolistic practices and broken up in 1911. Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of targeted philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research. His foundations pioneered the development of medical research, and were instrumental in the eradication of hookworm and yellow fever.
fx labor movement
is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. Labour unions and trade unions are common names for the specific collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Many elite-class individuals and political groups may also be active in and part of the labour movement.
fx The Great Migration of Blacks
The Great Migration was a grass-roots, leaderless movement. All the migrants--male laborers, women domestics, families--made individual decisions to move. Nonetheless, the deterioration of the quality of life of southern blacks in the two decades prior to World War I, coupled with a labor shortage in the industrial North, stimulated the migration. In the South, the rise of Jim Crow, the disfranchisement of black voters, and the spread of lynchings and other mob violence against blacks provided strong impetus for individuals and families to move. Widespread flooding and the infestation of cotton by the boll weevil created additional economic woes in the rural South.
fx Booker T. Washington
The Atlanta Compromise was a address by Washington on September 18, 1895. Given to a predominantly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition (later the site of Piedmont Park) in Atlanta, Georgia, the speech has been recognized as one of the most important and influential speeches in American history.

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