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IED concepts for cert exam (Development)


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McMichael (1996) on colonialism:
McMichael (1996) on colonialism:
When the whiteman came, we had the land and he had the bible, when he left….
Physical and psychological domination
Colonialism of settlement (annihilation – Spain)
Colonialism of rule (reorganization – UK)
Create export monocultures (tea, sugar, cotton, coffee) through “incentives”
Destruction of local industry creates impoverished labor →diasporas
McMichael (1996)
Results of colonialism
Results of colonialism: APWID
Active underdevelopment
Political change (bureaucracy)
Women’s status, control over resources declines
Industrialization increases
McMichael (1996)
On Decolonization
On Decolonization:
Seeds of independence: returning soldiers, rhetoric of colonizer (Haiti/Fr.Rev)
Racism: Memmi (1957, Tunisia) The Colonizer and the Colonized
“colonized American Negro”
Fannon (1963, Algeria) The Wretched of the Earth
manifesto for liberation, transcend enslavement-new history of 3rd world
Development becomes economic on US model agri/industrial
LA decolonizes first-rich landed elites, agriculture sponsors (ex. FEDECAFE)
McMichael (1996)
The Development project
The Development project:
65% income & 20% population (1st world) vs. 18%income & 67% population (3rd world)
Truman speech – science & industry
Critique: Gustavo Esteva (Mexico); underdevelopment is born, homogenization
Development is national and economic
Critique: regional conflicts in Africa, recent regionalization
Measure in GNP
Critique: Whether based on Rostow (creating take-off) or Lewis (creating infrastr)
Aggregate indexes obscure class differences and quality of life issues
McMichael (1996)
Similarities 1st/2nd world development approaches
Both economic/secular/national
Free market capitalism vs. central planning from each ability to according to his need
McMichael (1996)
Assumptions of development
Assumptions of development: LLMNS
Living standards can be quantified
Monetarization is goal, non is “backward”
Need to decrease 1st/3rd world living discrepancies, using 1st world model
Shift from agriculture to industry
McMichael (1996)
Third world Economic nationalism characteristics (3)
State planning to overcome inefficiencies
Inherited central administration (from colonizer)
Foreign aid – funneled through state (elite)
McMichael (1996)
Import Substitution
From Prebisch (1930s) in Argentina
1951 ECLA
b/c US does not import as much as UK, terms of trade grow less favorable with time
Refocus on domestic industrialization
Contrast: Brazil v. South Korea
Brazil focuses on rural development and FDI (inequity continues)
Korea Focus on development of national industry for export (less inequity)
"Religious" nature of education
Ramirez (2000)
Escobar (1995)
Relativity of definitions, conceptual fallacies (validity)
Jansen (2005) on education targeting
Rahnema (1991) on poverty

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