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Henry Ford
early 1900s. developed $5 day. pioneer of assembly line. country boy. criticized as a mad socialist. pioneer of worker/management relations. developed idea of humanity towards workers.
developed by Henry Ford in 1914. theory of high wages= high productivity. paternalistic idea of taking care of worker. most Ford
American Federation of Labor. Founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers. Largest grouping of unions for first half of 20th century. Dominated by craft unions til 1940s when to compete with CIO they needed to take on industrial unions too. tainted early by racism, patriarchy. excluded 80-90% of workforce.
Industrial Workers of the World. (wobblies) “the big union”. founded in 1905 at a convention of socialists, communists and trade unionists who were opposed to the AFLs practices. First leaders included Big Bill Haywood. international. Contended that all workers should be unified under one union and the wage system should be abolished. against contracts. Many free speech rallies. Powerful, ethical and cultural force. One of first unions to welcome women and blacks. Proponents of direct action. Subject to violent government repression. WWI destroyed much of the IWW
(Congress of Industrial Organizations) split from AFL occurred in 1937formed by John Lewis and Sidney Hillman because the AFL was too discriminatory in its representation of slivers of industries and protestant whites. Thought that when they formed, there would never be a better time to organize considering white house agenda.
Five Dollar Day
1914, henry ford created a minimum $5 salary for employees working at least an 8 hour day. This hoped to motivate and influence ford workers to work harder and more efficiently. Workers were eligible if they proved to live clean, sober and industrious living at home as well as in the work place. Workers saw Ford as a friend, fellow businessmen saw him as reckless. Ford ignored critics because he knew the importance of realizing the human element in his workers. Ford’s idea proved successful as his companies profits doubled in two years. Other results: too many desired jobs at Fords plant, resulting in riots. Others refused to work for less than $5 a day, so many were left unemployed in Detroit. Idea was revolutionary, but critics still viewed him as a mad socialist.
(House Committee on Unamerican Activities)- 1945-1975. Investigated subversion or propaganda against ‘the form of government guaranteed by our constitution. Investigated Nazis, socialists, communists. Blacklisted several Hollywood motion picture employees. abolished in 1975, responsibilities given to House Judiciary Committee.
flourished in 1970s and 80s, difficulties faced by unions and working class were the function of a new post fordist industrial revolution. Did not last long. Second industrial divide, cyber world high tech, greater international competition and a cultural differentiation of product markets had undermined the fordist production regime and the consumption patterns had undermined the fordist production regime and the consumption patterns on which it rested. Deindustrialization took place on the global scale, resulted in 11 plants closing in flint Michigan and 11 new plants opening in mexico.
- based on ideas of John Maynard Keynes in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money published in 1936 in response to the great depression. Macro level trends can overwhelm the micro. Instead of economics being based on output, Keynes thought demand to be more important. Postulated that government programs should aid demand of products.
equating personal happiness with material purchases. Associated with Keynesian economics. Aided employment rates in early century.
...or trench warfare?
trench warfare- 1947-1973. Lots of strikes. Anti-union propaganda and legal efforts. Industry to shift to sunbelt. RCA migration. Effective way to handle unions- move plants to less unionized areas.
labor management accord
'47 to '78. High levels of unionism in key industries. Routine collective bargaining. Doubling of real wages. Private welfare state. Pattern bargaining. Rise in social wage. However!
closed shop
workers are required to be part of the union. Used as a way of maintaining union standards for jobs with short term employees. Taft-Hartley outlawed closed shops, however, union shops are allowed unless state has passed ‘right to work’ laws.
(National Recovery Administration) FDRs principle initiative designed to restore prosperity during the first two years of New Deal, repudiated laissez-faire economics, sought to codify American capitalism by promulgating scores of industry codes that would put a floor on wages and prices and ceiling on hours and effort. Section 7a of NRA required that ‘employees shall have the right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing…free from the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers
John L. Lewis
early leader of United Mine Workers (UMW), broke from AFL to form CIO because they thought organization of all workers the most effective basis for the growth of labor’s power, knocked out William Hutchenson of the Carpenter’s Brotherhood, notoriously voted Republican in many elections, hired many commies and socialists, provided Democratic Party with half a million contribution from the UMW treasury to fund FDRs reelection
Sydney Hillman
leader of Amalgamated Clothing Workers (ACW) ), broke from AFL to form CIO because they thought organization of all workers the most effective basis for the growth of labor’s power
Frederick Taylor
father of scientific management. Time and motion studies. Found that most amount of money isn’t an important goal. ‘taylorism’. notable in assembly lines and fast food restaurants. When paid the same amount workers will work as slow as the slowest one of them who still gets paid. (soldiering). Taylorism generally ignores humanity of workers and sees them as strictly machines.
Taft Hartley Act
1947. Amended Wagner Act. Outlawed secondary boycotts and closed shops. Allowed individual states to outlaw union security clauses by passing ‘right to work’ laws. Required unions to give 60 day warning to employers before strike or other form of economic action. Gives president authority to intervene in strikes that cause national emergency. Gives employers right to sue unions for results of a secondary boycott.
Wagner Act
1935. Abolish company unions. Ends employer discrimination. National Labor Review Board certifies unions via election or other means. Management ‘duty’ to bargain. collective bargaining=industrial democracy. Can’t fire a worker because they decide to join a union. Members of management not protected by union, therefore can be fired for any reason. Did not cover agricultural workers, domestic servants, government work, health care. Established NLRB. Supreme court upheld legality in 1937 in NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation. However supreme court also later ruled that employers could not be restricted in their expression of disdain towards unions. Also employers were ruled to be able to ‘permanently replace’ workers who joined unions, but not fire them.
union shop
place where employer may hire union or non union members but non members must become members within a certain period of time or lose their jobs. Under National Labor Relations Act, non members may only be required to pay equivalent to union fees
open shop
one cannot be required to join a union as a requirement of employment. Required by law in right to work jurisdictions and federal government.
Shop Stewards
social security
1935. created by FDR with New Deal programs. created to fund unemployment, disability and retirement plans. funded through dedicated payroll tax. measure to implement social insurance during GD when poverty rates among elderly were upwards of 50%.
Change To Win
2005. A. Stern. break away from AFL-CIO. industry wide organizing. model-early CIO. significance- shows internal struggle in labor movement.
defeat healthcare
Clinton era. Clinton wanted to provide healthcare to all workers. big insurance likes because more members. small insurance dislikes because they aren't set up to handle that many people. significance- showing how far Dems have moved away form lavor, labor groups don't have power to push this though.
Thomas Jefferson
only land owning, self sufficient should vote. slave owner. hostile to industry and cities.
rise of the factory system
1810-1850. limitations of the putting out system. owners want labor discipline. transport makes for big markets. factories on fall line (water for transportation and power). industrial time v. agricultural time. task, time, wages.
knights of labor
labor union founded in secrecy in 1869. led by Uriah Stevens and Terrence Powderly. grouped by industry, contrary to most unions of the day. all inclusive. sought 8 hour day, equal pay for equal work, end of child labor, end of private banks.
Samuel Gompers
president AFL from 1886-1924. cigar maker. strong unions with high dues. against healthcare. women and children seen as parasites.
Joe Hill
1879. IWW. swedish immigrant. IWW songwriter. executed in Utah for a controversial murder.
Eugene Debs
socialist. locomotive fireman. conservative union official. socialist presidential candidate 1900-1920. pullman boycott in 1894.
industrial union upsurge
wagner act becomes law in '35. formation of CIO. FDR elected in landslide in '36. GM sit down strike in '36-'37.
drive system
low wages for 'driven', brutal, tough, inhumane.
WWI: Crisis of the Drive System
labor shortage. patriotism and americanism. the state demands production. loyal labor is rewarded. strike wave of 1919. radicals repressed. recession in 1921 and decline of labor.
Racial Problems in New Deal Labor Regime
race and gender embedded within new deal ethics and labor legislation. south in power. minimum wage coverage-low. unemployment pay- depends on state. CIO unions and whiteness. new dealers v. left on 'negro question'
A Philip Randolph
socialist in '20s. brotherhood of sleeping car porters. anti-communist. critic of AFL. march on washington in '41 and '63.
Women Workers in WWII
spike in labor force population. feminist sensibility. 'equal pay for equal work'. segregation by sex. 1946 electrical strike.
elected '32. legislated work reform. landslide victory in '36. backed by labor unions. founded
Caesar Chavez
'27-'93. ethnic leader, union leader, spiritual leader. politicalized by Catholic Church. organizes outside Wagner Act framework. United Farm Workers founded in '66. Agricultural labor act '75. Robert Kennedy breaks Chavez fast in '68 by breaking bread with him. failed as a unionist, success as civil rights leader
Walter Reuther
1907-1970. members of the UAW. took power of the UAW in the '40s. kept UAW active in Democratic party. took UAW out of AFL-CIO to join Teamsters in '60s. marched with United Farm Workers. believed that labor rights and civil rights should be aligned.

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