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ss chapter 23


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four things that caused tension in europe before WWI
militarism-european nations exbanded their armies and navies. when germany expanded that its own naval power was threatened. in response, britain built more ships.
imperialism-britain, france, germany, italy, and russia scramvled for colonies in africa, asia, and the pacific. each nation sought new markets and raw materials. this competition led to wars in places far from europe.
rival alliances-posed dangers-allies afreed to support one another in case of attack.
nationalism-nationalists called for freedom and self-government. it set nation against nation. it created mistrust and even hatred.
the policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war.
triple alliance
to potect itself and isolate france, germany organized this alliance with austria-hungary and italy.
triple entente
france responded to the triple alliance by linking to russia and britain
what happebed to Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, when he visited Sarajevo?
He rode in his car with his wife, Sohpie, through the city and a bomb was thrown in their car by a young serbian nationalist terrorist from a terrorist group called the Black Hand. they wanted Bosnia to be free from austria-hungary and to join serbia. the archuduke threw the bomb out, but later was shot.
why did austria hungary declare war on serbia?
-they accused the serbian government of plotting franz ferdinand's assassination.
why did germany declare war on russia?
russia came to the defense of serbia when austria-hungaray declared war on them because they both have the same ethnic heritage which is Slavic. Russia began to mobilize its forces, or prepare for war. Germany asked russia to stop its mobilization, but when russia did not reply, germany declared war on russia.
why did great britain declare war on germany?
germany marched through neutral belgium on their way to france. great britain had promised to defend Belgium if it were attacked long before.
why did germany declare war on france?
it was russia's ally, and they had already declared war on russia for mobilizing
What was Germany's plan for defeating Russia and France? what happened in the end?
they hoped to quickly defeat france and then turn their attention to the east and russia. the germans made quick advances but then the war became stalemate. both sides dug in primarily in northern france. trenches were created where soldiers lived and fought. most offensives resulted in many deaths but gained little new territory.
in war, neither side is strong enough to defeat the other
german emperor
central powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire in the war
Allied Powers
France, Britain, and Russia in the war. In time, 21 other nations, including Italy, joined the Allies
Battle of the Marne
French and British troops slowed the German Advance to Paris at the Marne River. This battle ended German hopes for a speedy victory
trench warfare
soldiers spent day after day shelling the enemy. the officers would order troops over the top. soldiers crawled out of trenches and raced to "no man's land" to attack the enemy. resulted in many deaths but gained little territory
battle of verdun
lasted 10 months. germans lost 400,000 men trying to overrun french lines and the french lost even more defending their positions.
what was america's public opinion of the war?
americans were determined not to be dragged into the war. president wilson wanted them to be neutral. officially, the u.s. was neutral, but most americans favored allies. the u.s. had longstanding ties w/ britain (ex. same language and traditions). the u.s. was allies w/ france in the american revolution.
on the other hand, 8 million americans were of german or austrain decent. irish americans hated britain which had ruled ireland for centuries. jews also favored germany against russia b/c they had fled persecution in russia
what was the impact of war on the u.s.?
the american economy boomed during the war because american farmers and manufacturers supplied both sides with goods. eventually, the u.s. traded more w/ the allies then w/ the central powers. both sides conducted a propaganda war in the u.s., where they each portrayed the other side as savage beasts
the spreading of ideas or beliefs that help a particular cause and hurt an opposing cause.
Tell about submarine warfare
germans used submarines, called u-boats, that attacked any ship that entered or left british ports. they attacked neutral ships as well as war shops even though the law said they could only search a neutral ship suspected of carrying war goods. to prevent being rammed or shelled, german submarines torpedoed all ships. president wilson rejected this limit on neutral ships and said he would hold germany responsible for any loss of american life or property
sinking of the lusitania
germany ignored wilson's threat about submarine warware and torpedoed the Lusitania, a British passanger ship, killing over 1,200 people including many americans. wilson broke off diplomatic relations with germany. germany apologized and promised not to attack neutral ships without warning because it didnt want to risk war with the u.s.
the election of 1916
woodrow wilson ran for reelection using the slogan "he kept us out of war" he tried to bring about peace talks but was not successful. he was reelected
what did germany do as of february 1, 1917
germany renewed it indiscriminate submarine warfare because they felt that they could starve the allies into surrender. wilson broke diplomatic relations with germany.
The Zimmerman Telegram
a secret note between germany and mexico. it promised mexico its "lost provinces", or texas, arizona, new mexico, and california if mexico would attack the u.s. if it had entered WWI. this made americans angry with germany
First revolution in russia
-democratic revolution. the Czar of russia was forec to step down and revolutionaries set up the provisional government and called for democratic reforms. this made president wilson more receptive to helping the allies because they were now all democracies. he was a firm believer in democracy
why did the u.s. declare war?
wilson asked for a declaration of war because the allies were almost at the point of collapse.
selective service act
it required all young men from age 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
food administration board
herbert hoover headed this agency that helped to incease food production. "victory gardens" and "meatless days" helped to increase the food supply for the war effort.
war industries board
organized production and helped to settle labor disputes over working hours and wages and tried to prevent strikes
committee on public information
used propaganda techniques (ex. posters) to support the war effort
liberty bonds
movies stars helped to sell liberty bonds. by buying bonds, american citizens were lending money to the government to pay for the war. the government raised $21 billion through the sale of liberty bonds
"four minute men"
the speakers urged americans to make sacrifices for the goals of freedom and democracy
how did women support the war effort?
women stepped in to men's jobs to help the war effort in war industries and other fields so men could enlist. women changed the view that they were fit for only certain kinds of work
what kind of tensions were there with african americans in the war?
thousands left the south to work in war industries in the north. competition led to riots.
what kind of tensions did mexican americans face during the war?
-entered the u.s. in large numbers-many worked in factories, who contributed to the war effort. after the war, the u.s. tried to force them to return to mexico.
what kind of tension did german americans face during the war?
many were subjected to suspicion and were attacked and discriminated against.
how were critics of the war treated?
critics of the war were treated harshly. Congress passed laws making it a crime to criticize the government or to interfere with the war. nearly 1600 men and women were arrested for breaking these laws. a few ppl questioned these laws, whcih voilated the constitution's freedom of speech.
people who refuse to fight in any war
order of countries coming into the war
1. Austria-Hungary delcared war on Serbia, accusing them of plotting the Archduke and his wife's assasination
2. Russia and Serbia have the same background, Slavic, and Russia mobilized its troops. Germany told Russia to stop, but they did not reply. Germany declared war on Germany.
3. Germany declared war on Russia's ally, France
4. Germany marched through Belgium on the way to France and Britain, respecting a promise it made to protect neutral Belgium from attack, declared war on Germany.
name deadly new weapons of WWI
grenades, flame throwers, machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas, submarines (U-boats-Germans), land and sea mines
how many americans were in france by march of 1918? a few months later?
march of 1918-fewer than 300,000 men had reached france almost one year after american had entered the war
during the next few months-troops poured into france, reached 2 million, and giving the allies a much-needed boost
why did things get worse for the allies in 1917?
by june 1917 they had lost millions of solidiers, troops in the trenches were exhausted, and civilians were near starvation. in nov. 1917, russia withdrew from the war.
Why did russia withdraw from the war in 1917?
the 2nd revolution in russia- the bolsheviks seized power from the provisional government. lenin, the bolshevik leader, opposed the war arguing that it benefited only the ruling class.
the treaty of brest-litovsk
treaty that russia and germany signed that took germany out of the war. it gave some russian land rich in resources to germany. germany could now move all of its troops to the western front in france where they hoped to give a final push to defeat the allies. they smashed through allied lines and were only 50 miles from paris in may 1918.
general john j. pershing
commander of american forces in france. the allies wanted the americans to reinforce their war-weary soldiers but pershing insisted that the u.s. troops operate as independent units.
the battle at belleau wood
americas first major battle in france, which was a victory. by july 1918, american troops had turned the tide of the war and the germans were forced to retreat.
battle at argonne forest
more than a million americans pushed into the argonne forest, where years of war had left the land scarred with trenches and shell holes. after a 47 day battle, americans broke through the german defenses.
harlem hellfighters
369th united states infantry- the unit was an african american force attached to the french army. the french were glad to fight side by side with them and respected their bravery. the harlem hell fights spent more time under fire than any other american unit.
henry johnson and needham roberts
harlem hellfighters who were guarding an outpost in france when they heard german raiders were coming. they sounded the alarm and fought hand-to-hand combat with the germans. for their bravery, they were awarded croix de guerre, a french medal of honor. no one had given the harlem hell-fighters a going-away parade like the white reginments but both men received a hero's welcome when they got home.
what was happening in germany previous to the armistice?
german forces were pulling back to near their border. conditions in germany were deteriorating. sailors rebelled and there were revolutions in several german cities.
an agreement to stop fighting. germans asked president wilson for an armistice. wilson set up two conditions for it: 1) germany must accept his plan for peace and 2) the german emperor must give up power. german sailors rebelled and revolutions simmered in several german cities. on nov. 9, the emperor was forced to resign, and germany became a republic. WWI ended at 11 AM on november 11, 1918- the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month
fourteen points
wilson's plan for peace- meant to prevent international problems from causing another war-
1st point-called for an end to secret agreements,-wilson felt that secrecy created the rival alliances that helped to create war
-called for freedom of the seas, free trade, and a limit on arms
-urged peaceful settlement of disputes over colonies
-self-determination-national groups had the right to their own territory and forms of government
-14th point-called for a league of nations to protect the independence of all countries-large or small
-"peace without victory"-no punishment
big four
four people deciding the big issues at the peace conference in paris
1. woodrow wilson of the u.s.
2. david lloyd george of britain
3. george clemenceau of france
4. vittorio orland of italy
other allies wanted german to pay reparations, or payments for the losses they had suffered during the war. they wanted germany to accept responsibility for the war and tried to protect themselves against future german attacks.
versailles treaty
-germany had to take full blame for the way
-germany had to disarm completely
-germany had to pay the allies huge reparations
-germany was stripped of its colonies, which were put under the control of other nations
-germans army and navy were limited and it had no air force
-germany had to take full responsibility for the war
things that treaty of versailles and 14 points had in common
league of nations
self determination
limit weapons (in germany)
what did americans think of the treaty of versailles?
some said that it was too soft on the defeated powers
many german americans felt that it was too harsh. isolationists opposed the league of nations.
what was massachusetss senator henry lodge cabot's opinion of the versailles treaty?
lodge accepted the idea of the league of nations but wanted changes in the treaty. lodge objected to article 10. it called for the league to protect any member whose independence or territory was threatened. he argued that article 10 could involve the u.s. in future european wars. he wanted changes in the treaty to ensure that the u.s. remained indepedent of the league. he also wanted to have the power to decide whether the u.s. would follow the league policy.
what was wilsons response to americans disliking the versailles treaty and league of nations??
wilson was sure lodge's changes would weaken the league. his advisers urged him to compromise, but wilson refused. wilson went across the nation urging the people to tell their senators to support the treaty. during this, wilson cancelled the rest of the trip and had a stroke a week later.
what became of the versailles treaty?
the senate rejected the treaty. wilsons cherished goal of a league of nations vanished. the u.s. did not sign a peace treaty with germany until 1921. by then, there was a league of nations but they were limited in power and influence bc the u.s. was not in it.

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