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ch 22 ids

Terms

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square deal
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers
porfifrio diaz/ francisco maderao/ victoriano huerta
was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed, but allowed American business to establish itself. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution, and popular leader Madero, overthrew Diaz, and promised democratic reform but seemed hostile to American businesses. Huerta, a reactionary general was encouraged by the US, in 1913, overthrew Madero as dictator and had him murdered. Even though the U.S. encouraged the bloody plan; new president Wilson said he would never recognize Huerta's government of butchers.
panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
upton sinclair / the jungle
He was the author of the sensational novel, THE JUNGLE, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his descriptions of dirty food production. His book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products. Roosevelt in return insisted on the passage of the of the Meat inspection act.
roosevelt corollary
in his own elaboration on the Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt stated that the U.S. would use the military to intervene in Latin American affairs if necessary.
underwood simmons tariff
substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
teddy roosevelt
an idol to a generation of progressive reformers, no president before and few after attracted such attention and devotion, even if he was in many respects conservative. He earned popularity because of the extent of his reforms and public personality.
big stick diplomacy
The policy held by Teddy Roosevelt in foreign affairs. The "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them.
clayton antitrust act
helped to control monopolies by lengthening the Sherman Act's list of business practices that were objectionable (interlocking directorates). It exempted labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution; legalized strikes and peaceful picketing.
pure food and drug act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
dollar diplomacy/philander knox
Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
mark hanna
confirming Roosevelt's reputation as a wild man, he warned McKinley against selecting him as his running mate, exclaiming" Now look, that dammed cowboy is president of the U.S.".
platt amendment
had to pass before U.S. granted Cuba political independence; gave the US the right to prevent any foreign power from intruding into the new nation, went into use in 1906, when domestic uprisings threatened stability, and American troops landed and stayed for three years in Cuba to quell the fighting.
conservationism
environmental view espoused by Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot which stated that land should be protected for carefully managed development.
federal trade commision act
committee formed to investigate industries engaging in interstate commerce. It was created to stop unfair trade practices and to regulate and crush monopolies.
louis bradeis
A prominent reformer and Attorney in "Muller vs Oregon" (1908) that persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. Wrote book "Other People's Money and How Bankers use it" (1914) that pushed reform within the banks. Nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for Supreme Court.
pinchot ballinger controversy
Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.
hepburn regulation act
1906, it imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
john j. pershing
an American general who led troops against "Pancho" Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.
old guard
controlled the Republican National Committee, viewed Taft as the candidate of the conservatives, and gave him all but 19 of the delegates. Since Roosevelt did not get the delegates he needed he encouraged his progressive. supporters at a rally to follow him and leave the party.
robert la follette
Roosevelt had been reluctant to become a candidate for president, because La Follete had been working since 1911 to secure the presidential nomination for himself. But his candidacy stumbled in 1912 when exhausted and distraught over his ill daughter; he appeared to suffer a nervous breakdown during a speech.
keating owen act
supported by Wilson in 1916, prohibited shipment across state lines of goods produced by underage children, thus giving an expanded importance to the constitutional clause assigning Congress the task of regulating Interstate Commerce. Unfortunately, Congress struck down the act, and a new law attempted to achieve the same goal by imposing a heavy tax on the products of Child Labor.
federal reserve act
The most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal. It created a regulatory agency for banking with 12 regional reserve districts. Each bank was independent but was controlled by the Federal Reserve Board, which was controlled by the public. The Federal Reserve controls the amount of money in circulation through reserves and interest rates.
payne aldrich tariff
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
great white fleet
the 16 white battleships of the new American navy sent by Roosevelt, on a journey all over the world, included stopping by Japan, who the U.S. was eager to prove their own power to.
smith lever act
1917-Established the U.S.'s first Food Administration with the authority to fix food prices, license distributors, coordinate purchases, oversee exports, act against hoarding and profiteering, and encourage farmers to grow more crops.
john muir/ sierra club
early in his presidency, Roosevelt spent days camping in the Sierras with Muir, the nations leading preservationists and the founder of the Sierra Club which significantly added to the National Park System.
pancho villa
combination of a bandit and a Robin Hood. He was a rival of President Carranza of Mexico. He alluded Pershing and was never caught because Pershing was forced to go fight in WWI.
john hay/ tomas herran
Hay was Roosevelt's secretary of state, dispatched to negotiate an agreement with Colombian diplomats in Washington that would allow construction to begin on the Panama Canal. Unwisely, Herran, the Colombian charge d'affairs signed an agreement giving the US the perpetual rights to a 6 mile wide canal zone, and in return the US would pay 10 million dollars and an annual rental fee of $250,000.
hetch hetchy controversy
Hetch Hetchy was a spectacular, high walled valley, in the Yosemite National Park, and was popular with naturalists such as Muir and other Sierra Club members. But many residents of San Francisco worried about finding enough water to serve their growing Population, saw the valley as an ideal place for a reservoir. The naturalists and advocates of the dam argued for years and eventually after WWI, the dam was approved and constructed.
william howard taft
the 1908 election Taft was chosen over William Jennings Bryan to succeed Roosevelt. As president he approached foreign policy by using America's wealth to negotiate politically. He also brought suits against 90 trusts during his administration. Due to his lack of political skills, he helped divide the Republican Party.
national reclamation act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
meat inspection act
after Sinclair's powerful expose of the meat packing industry, Roosevelt insisted on the passage of this act, which ultimately helped eliminate many diseases once transmitted to impure meat.
venustaiano carranza
He became president of Mexico in 1914. He succeeded the harsh President Huerta. President Carranza at first supported Wilson's sending General Pershing into Mexico to look for the criminal Pancho Villa, but when he saw the number of troops he became outraged and opposed Wilson.
phillipe bunau varrilla
chief engineer of the French canal project, served as an ally to Roosevelt who was furious over Colombia asking for more money, and looked for ways to circumvent the Colombian government.
gifford pinchot
Roosevelt's Chief Forester, worked along side him to seize all the forests and many of the water power sites still in public domain before Congress restricted his authority of public lands in 1907.
preservationism/ national park system
an environmental view espoused by John Muir which stated that land should be protected for its natural beauty and not for its possible human use. Muir promoted this belief by adding significantly to the National Park System, which protected public land from any exploitation or development.
new nationalism
A system, proposed by Roosevelt, in which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
woodrow wilson/ new freedom
Wilson believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
eugene debs
Represented the Socialist Party in the 1908 and 1912 elections; high number of votes in the 1912 election made Socialists think that they would win the presidency in 1916
progressive/bull moose party
when Roosevelt led his supporters out of the Republican convention and party, he brought them together at a convention in Chicago where he launched the Progressive Party and nominated himself as presidential candidate. The party earned a nickname when Roosevelt claimed that in approaching the presidential battle he felt as fit as a bull moose.
panama canal
the United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.

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