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8-English Exam Review

Terms

undefined, object
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Alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds within non rhyming words
only their usual maneuvers
Onomatopoeia
use of words whose sound echo their meaning
Buzz, crunch, boing etc
Simile
A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things using the word like or as
metaphor
a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things that are basically unlike but have something in common
words are like bullets
language is a road map of culture

Hyperbole
a figure of speech in which the truth is exaggerated for emphasis or humorous effect.
i had so much homework, I needed a pickup truck to carry all my books home
Personification
A gifure of speech that makes an inanimate object act like a person or animal; the assignment of human traits to things, colors, qualities, ideas.
the fog crept in on little cat feet
the dress itches to be worn

allusion
an idirect reference to a famous person, place, event, literary, work...
'we can load what we own in the back of a van, a couple of modern day moses' looking for the promise land'
Paradox
a seemingly contradictory or absurd statement that may nonetheless suggest an important truth.
a little learning is a dangerous thing
Symbolism
a symbol is a person, place, an object, or an activity that stands for something beyond itself. Consider the sue of seasons: spring can symbolize rebirth, a new day; winter can symbolize an end or death.
Noun Absolute
A group of words beginning with a noun followed by a participle, participial phrase, prepositional phrase, adjective or adverb as well as any modifiers
examples:
book in hand
red jacket zipped up
giddy with delight
eyes glued to the stage




Appositive Phrase
An appositive phrase is a group of words that explains or identifies a noun or pronoun. It is set off from the rest of a sentence by commas
examples:
Mary, an excellent tennis player, is my friend

Participial Phrase
A participial phrase is a group of words that begin with a particple and is used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun
example:
Crossing the lake, ....
Eluding the tacklers, .....


Adverb Clause
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb
example:
Because traffic was so heavy,...
After the baseball game,....
When the sun shines,....



Adjective Clause
an Adjective Clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun: that which who whom whose
example:
ask the clerk who is behind the counter

Give an example of passive voice (never use in writing!)
The metropolis has been scorched by the dragon's fiery breath.

The horse was ridden by a brave knight

What is a subordinating conjunction?
Name 10.
A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate clause to a main clause.
after how till ( or 'til)
although if unless
as inasmuch until
as if in order that when
as long as lest whenever
as much as now that where
as soon as provided (that) wherever
as though since while
because so that
before than
even if that
even though though











Prep. Phrase (Prepositional Phrase)
A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb. As an adjective, the prepositional phrase will answer the question Which one?
The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold.
Which sweet potatoes? The ones forgotten in the vegetable bin!

Noun Clause
A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun.

Example of Noun Clause used as a subject
What i like best about my trip to Mexico was seeing Aztec ruins
Example of a Noun Clause used as a predicate nominative
The loser is whoever has the final piece to the puzzle
Example of Noun Clause used as a direct object
We though we knew what Sherri's gift would be
Example of Noun Clause used as indirect object
The chef will tell whoever asks the recipe for her meatballs
Example of Noun Clause used as an object of a preposition
She carefully checked the applications of whoever applied for the job
What is an independent clause?
a clause (contains subject and verb) that can stand alone
What is a dependent or subordinate clause?
a clause (contains subject and verb) that cannot stand alone
What are misplaced modifiers?
Example?
(never use in writing!)

Misplaced modifiers are modifiers that modify something you didn't intend them to modify.
Covered in wildflowers, Brian pondered the hillside's beauty.


What is a simple sentence?
example?
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought.
Juan plays basketball every afternoon.
What is a complex sentence?
example?
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which
After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

What is a compound sentence?
example?
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a FANBOYS.
I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.

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