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World History Final Exam Part 2


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Sun Yixian
a physician who had spent many years in the United States. He was the first great leader of the Kuomintang, or the Nationalist Party. His Revolutionary Alliance succeeded in overthrowing the last emperor of the Qing dynasty. He became president of the new Republic of China. He held the post for just six weeks. He hoped to establish a modern government based on nationalism, people�s rights, and people�s livelihood. He considered nationalism vital
Meiji Era
The period of Japanese history from 1867 to 1912 during which Mutsuhito reigned. New ways were adopted. Feudal lords gave land to the emperor. Statesmen were sent to Europe and North America to study foreign ways
a kind of economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. Socialism grew out of a belief in progress and a concern for social justice
Long March
Communists fled the Nationalists over a 6,000 mile journey
League of Nations
The league was to be an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations. The five Allied powers were to be permanent members of the Executive Council. There would be 32 Allied and neutral nations in the General Assembly
Russia�s first parliament. Approved by Nicholas II. He dissolved it after just ten weeks
Ottoman Empire
The declining empire had difficulties trying to fit into the modern world. They made attempts to change before they finally were unable to hold back the European imperialist powers. Their military weakness was revealed by the Crimean War
Zimmerman Note
The British intercepted a telegram from Germany�s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German ambassador in Mexico. It said that Germany would help Mexico �reconquer� the land it had lost to the United States if Mexico would ally itself with Germany. The British decoded the message and gave it to the U.S. government. Americans called for war against Germany. It was the last straw. President Wilson asked Congress to declare war. They entered on the side of the Allies.
he took over after Lenin. He focused on Russian development. He transformed the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. He called for a command economy. He ushered in revolutions in industry and agriculture. He outlined several Five-Year Plans for the development of the Soviet Union�s economy. His methods produced fantastic economic results. His agricultural revolution was also successful. He combined privately owned farms into large, government-owned farms, called collective farms. He launched the Great Purge-a campaign of terror. It was directed at eliminating anyone who threatened his power
Young Italy
a nationalist group organized by Giuseppe Mazzini. They believed nation-sates were the best hope for social justice, democracy, and peace in Europe
Adam Smith
a professor who defended the idea of a free economy, or free markets. According to him, economic liberty guaranteed economic progress. He claimed that government need not interfere in the economy
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Signed between Russia and Germany. Russia surrendered a large chunk of its territory to Germany and its allies. It triggered anger among many Russians. They objected to the Bolsheviks and their policies
Jeremy Bentham
An English philosopher who introduced the philosophy of utilitarianism. He argued that people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness. He argued that the government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. He argued that in general the individual should be free to pursue his or her own advantage without interference from the state
Georges Danton
A revolutionary leader who was devoted to the rights of Paris's poor people
British Empire
formerly the United Kingdom and all the territories under its control; this empire consisted of Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and vast portions of Africa
Mein Kampf
(My Struggle) written in jail by Hitler. This book set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany. It became the blueprint for the Nazis
Salt march
a demonstration to defy the hated Salt Acts. To show their opposition to the tases, Gandhi and his followers walked about 240 miles to the seacoast where they began to make their own salt by collecting seawater and letting it evaporate
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan went to war over Manchuria. This was a region north of Korea that was under Chinese rule. Japan offered to recognize Russia�s rights in Manchuria if the Russians would agree to stay out of Korea. But the Russians refused. Japan launched a surprise attack, striking at the Russian navy. The war resulted from this. Japan drove Russian troops out of Korea. Japan won brutal land battles and destroyed Russia�s Baltic fleet. The Treaty of Portsmouth gave Japan the captured territories. It also forced Russia to withdraw from Manchuria and to stay out of Korea
Il Duce
the leader. Mussolini after taking control of Italy. Secret police jailed his opponents. Government censors forced radio stations and publications to broadcast or publish only Fascist doctrines. He outlawed strikes. He sought to control the economy by allying the Fascists with the industrialists and large landowners. Italy became the model for Fascists in other countries
Boer War
between the British and the Boers. Was the first modern �total� war. The Boers launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against the British. The British countered by burning Boer farms and imprisoning women and children in disease-ridden concentration camps. Britain won the war
Weimar Republic
Germany's new democratic government. Had serious weaknesses from the start. Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition. Postwar Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones. Millions of Germans blamed this government, not their wartime leaders, for the country's defeat and postwar humiliation. It was this government that had signed the Treaty of Versailles
National Assembly
formed from the Third Estate to pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Crimean War
a war between the Russians and the Ottomans. Britain and France entered the war on the Ottoman side. The combined forces of the Ottomans, Britain, and France defeated Russia. It was the first war in which women established their position as army nurses. It was also the first war to be covered by newspaper correspondents. It revealed the Ottoman Empire�s military weakness
Schlieffen Plan
In the event of a two-front war, Schlieffen had called for attacking France and then Russia. The general had reasoned that Russia, with its lack of railroads, would have difficulty mobilizing its troops. Under the Schlieffen Plan, a large part of the German army would race west, to defeat France, and then return to fight Russia in the east.
German emperor
Maximillien Robespierre
He and his supporters tried to wipe out every trace of France�s past monarchy and nobility. He became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. He decided who should be considered enemies of the republic. He governed France nearly as a dictator, and the period of his rule became known as the Reign of Terror.
Industrial Revolution
the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18th century. Machines wove textiles and did other jobs as well. It started in England and soon spread to Continental Europe and North America
Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne who was shot at point blank along with his wife, Sophie on their visit to Sarajevo. Because the assassin was a Serbian, Austria decided to use the murders as an excuse to punish Serbia
Otto von Bismarck
A conservative Junker chosen by Wilhelm to help solve the problem with Parliament. He was a master of what came to be known as realpolitik. The word described tough power politics with no room for idealism. He became one of the commanding figures of German history
Alexander III
halted all reforms in Russia. He clung to the principles of autocracy, a government in which he had total power. He was determined to strengthen autocracy, orthodoxy, and nationality. He imposed strict censorship codes on published materials and written documents. He forbade use of languages other than Russian. He made Jews the target of persecution. A wave of pogroms-organized violence against Jews-broke out in many parts of Russia
the philosophy introduced by Jeremy Bentham arguing that people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness
an agreement to stop fighting. Ended World War I. Signed by a representative of the new German government and Marshal Foch in a railway car in a forest near Paris
Francisco Franco
headed the revolt against a republican government in Spain. After Republican resistance collapsed, he became Spain�s Fascist dictator
Jean Paul Marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
Unrestricted submarine warfare
the Germans announced that their submarines would sink without warning any ship in the waters around Britain
Nicholas II
czar who stubbornly refused to surrender any of his power. During his reign, Russia lagged behind the industrial nations of western Europe
Spanish Civil War
Spain had been a monarchy until a republic was declared. The government, run by liberals and socialists, held office amid many crises. Army leaders, favoring a Fascist-style government, joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt. Thus began a civil war that dragged on for three years. Hitler and Mussolini supported the Nationalists (Franco�s forces).
Third Reich
the German Empire headed by Adolf Hitler
Giuseppe Mazzini
an Italian who organized a nationalist group called Young Italy. He briefly headed a republican government at Rome. He believed that nation-states were the best hope for social justice, democracy, and peace in Europe
Giuseppe Garibaldi
A bold and romantic soldier who led a small army of Italian nationalists. They became known as the Red Shirts
Reign of Terror
Robespierre gathered support and set out to wipe out every trace of France�s past monarchy and nobility. He became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. They often had people tried in the morning and executed the same afternoon. He governed France nearly as a dictator, and this period of his rule became known as the Reign of Terror
Suez Canal
a manmade waterway that cut through the Isthmus of Suez. It connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. It was built mainly with French money and Egyptian labor. It gave the British occupation in Egypt
Estates General
an assembly of representatives from all three estates
Muhammad Ali
a leader who emerged after Napoleon failed to win Egypt. He fought a series of battles in which he gained control of Syria and Arabia. He began a series of reforms in the military and in the economy. His efforts to modernize Egypt were continued by his grandson
The Communist Manifesto
The manifesto of Marx and Engels in which they argued that human societies have always been divided into warring classes. It produced few short-term results, but produced explosive results at the turn of the century. It inspired revolutionaries such as Russia�s Lenin, China�s Mao Zedong, Vietnam�s Ho Chi Minh, and Cuba�s Fidel Castro. The pamphlet condemned the inequalities of early industrial economies
Adolf Hitler
This man's dictatorial rule of Germany, which led to the deaths of millions in World War II, has placed him among history's most hated villains. A decorated veteran of World War I, he joined the German Workers' Party in 1919, later renaming it the National Socialist German Workers Party
heavily fortified area that formed the Czechs� main defense against Germany. Hitler demanded it be given to Germany. It was given to Germany at the Munich Conference
�Night of Broken Glass.� a violent attack on the Jewish community. Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany and murdered around 100 Jews. It marked a major step-up in the Nazi policy of Jewish persecution. The future for Jews in Germany looked grim
living space
Munich Conference
a meeting of Germany, France, Britain, and Italy proposed by Mussolini. Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take the Sudetenland. In exchange, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia�s new borders. The Czechs weren�t invited to the Conference
Boxer Rebellion
Poor peasants and workers resented the special privileges grated to foreigners. They also resented Chinese Christians. To demonstrate their discontent, they formed a secret organization called the Society of Harmonious Fists. They soon came to be known as the Boxers. Their campaign against the Dowager Empress�s rule and the foreigner privilege was called the Boxer Rebellion
Agricultural Revolution
After buying up the land of village farmers, wealthy landowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. The increase in their landholdings enabled them to cultivate larger fields, using new seeding and harvesting methods. Within these enclosures, landowners experimented to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop yields. Crop rotation was one of the best developments
Scorched Earth
burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat. Used by Alexander in Russia against Napoleon
Bolshevik Revolution
without warning, Bolshevik Red Guards made up of armed factory workers stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd. They took over government offices and arrested the leaders of the provisional government. It was over in a matter of hours
Fourteen Points
a series of proposals drawn up by President Woodrow Wilson that outlined a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace. The first five points included an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, and reduced national armies and navies. The fifth goal was and adjustment of colonial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples. The sixth through thirteenth were specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations. The guiding idea was self-determination, allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live. The fourteenth point proposed a general association of nations that would protect great and small states alike
Camillo di Cavour
named prime minister of Sardinia. He was a wealthy, middle-aged aristocrat, who worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia�s power. He achieved that expansion. He also achieved the unification of Italy
John Stuart Mill
a philosopher and economist who led the utilitarian movement. He came to question unregulated capitalism. He believed it was wrong that workers should lead deprived lives that sometimes bordered on starvation. He wished to help ordinary working people with policies that would lead to a more equal division of profits
French Estates
Three Estates: the first estate was made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church. They scorned Enlightenment ideas. The Second Estate was made up of rich nobles. They held the highest offices in government. They disagreed about Enlightenment ideas. The Third Estate included bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers. They had no power to influence government. They embraced Enlightenment ideas
Mao Zedong
a young schoolteacher who supported protesters of European imperialists. He became China�s greatest revolutionary leader. He was among the founders of the Chinese Communist Party. He began to develop his own brand of communism. He believed he could bring revolution to a rural country where the peasants could be the true revolutionaries. He fled in the Long March
the German brand of fascism formed by the Nazis
a newspaper editor and politician who boldly promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces. He vowed to give Italy strong leadership. He founded the Fascist Party. He took power �legally.�
Opium War
European merchants were determined to find a product the Chinese would buy in large quantities. This product was found to be opium. British merchants smuggled it into China. The growing supply of opium caused great social, moral, and monetary problems for the country. Britain refused to stop trading opium. The result was an ope clash between the British and the Chinese-the Opium War. The Chinese suffered a humiliating defeat. They signed a peace treaty, the Treaty of Nanjing. This gave Britain the island of Hong Kong. U.S. and other foreign citizens gained extraterritorial rights
He led the Bolsheviks in the Bolshevik Revolution. His next step was tackling the problems he inherited from czarist rule. He ordered that all farmland be distributed among the peasants. He gave control of factories to the workers. He signed a truce with Germany. He revived the economy and restructuring the government
raised pro-Nazi feelings among Sudeten Germans
Sino-Japanese War
China broke the Korea hands-off agreement between them and Japan. Japan protested and sent its troops to Korea to fight the Chinese. Within a few months, Japan had driven the Chinese out of Korea, destroyed the Chinese navy, and had begun taking over Manchuria. China and Japan signed a peace treaty, giving Japan its first colonies-Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands
"Age of Reason": The Enlightenment started from some key ideas put forth by two English political thinkers of the 1600�s, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Both men experienced the political turmoil of England early in that century. Hobbes believed that governments were needed to keep order. Locke believed that all people were born with three natural rights-life, liberty, and property. If the government were to take any of these away, the people had the right to overthrow the government
French Revolution
The Third Estate delegates formed the National Assembly. They proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government. They made the Tennis Court Oath, pledging to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution. The Bastille was stormed and became a great symbol of the revolution.
Five-Year Plans
They set impossibly high quotas to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. They were brought into action by Stalin. They called for a command economy-a system in which the government made all economic decisions. They ushered in revolutions in industry and agriculture
Karl Marx
a German journalist who introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism. He argued that human societies have always been divided into warring classes. He described communism as a form of complete socialism in which the means of production-all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses-would be owned by the people. Private property would in effect cease to exist. All goods and services would be shared equa
The Wealth of Nations
a book by Adam Smith
Powder Keg of Europe
The Balkans; they had a long history of nationalist uprisings and ethnic clashes. Nowhere was a dispute more likely to occur than on the Blakan Peninsula
Jiang Jieshi
feared the Communist's goal of creating a socialist economy modeled after the Soviet Union's. At first, put aside differences with Communists, but soon turned against them. Became president of the Nationalist Republic of China. Promised democracy and political rights to all Chinese. Did nothing to improve the life of China's rural peasants

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