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OCE Test III

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Hydrocarbon seeps are common...
in the Gulf of Mexico
Which group accounts for most of the zooplankton biomass?
copepods
Organisms that cannot withstand large changes in temperature are referred to as...
stenothermal
All of the following are associated with hypersaline seeps except...
water of very high temperature.
The neritic province is associated with the continental shelf.
True
Some unusually large organisms occur at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.
True
The color pattern in which marine organisms are light on the bottom and dark on the top of their bodies is termed...
countershading
Many cetaceans can extract 90% of the oxygen from each breath
True
Neritic environments are influenced by...
seasonal salinity variations, seasonal temperature fluctuations, wave energy
The eastern side of an ocean basin tends to have greater diversity of reef-building corals than the western side.
False
A small size is advantageous for phytoplankton because it..
makes it easier for them to acquire nutrients, makes it easier for them to get rid of wastes
Neritic marine environments occur...
over continental shelves
Fish that are cruisers often have relatively high body temperature because...
it increases the power output of muscle tissue
A group of important marine autotrophs that have silicate incorporated in their cell walls are...
diatoms
The most common adaptation for living on a sediment-covered shore is...
the ability to burrow into the sediment
sea lions can be distinguished from seals because they...
have external ears
Mismatched pair
Manatee-Cetacea
The efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems is approximately...
10%
The maximum sustrainable yield is best defined as...
largest catch that can be taken without overfishing
Dolphins can be distinguished from porpoises becuase...
dolphins have a curved dorsal fin, but porpoises have a triangular dorsal fin.
Most of the food eaten by most deep-sea animals is derived from primary production in the lighted, surface layer of the ocean.
True
The primary producers in hydrothermal-vent communities are...
archaea
The majority of marine species are pelagic.
False
All of the following help organisms deal with wave shock in the rocky intertidal zone except...
motile larvae
The body shape among fishes varies greatly in accordance with habitat and lifestyle. A torpedo-shaped body is found among...
fast swimming fishes
A modified circulatory system in tuna helps it...
cruise for long periods of time, maintain a relatively high body temperature, minimize heat lost, swim very fast for short periods of time
Purse seines are nets that...
surround and trap fishes
Plankton that are 2.0 to .2 um in size are called...
picoplankton
Bacteria can live in extreme environments
True
Sea otters have...
dense fur but lack an insulating blubber layer
When an organism has the same salt and water concentration as its environment, it is said to be...
isotonic
Which of the following is not an adaptation for deep diving cetaceans?
shifting blood flow from the brain to the extremities
Harmful algal blooms...
may produce toxins that affect human neurological functioning.
Not a baleen whale
Sperm Whale
Scientists think that marine mammals evolved from land-dwelling mammals
True
The relative productivity in the world's oceans ordered from most productive to least productive is...
polar waters, temperate waters, tropical waters.
Barrel-shaped animals with openings at each end for current flow are called
salps
The movement of water from an area of higher concentrations to an area of lower concentrations across a semi-permable membrane is...
osmosis
In temperate oceans during the summer months...
nutrient concentrations are low, and solar input is high
The low-tide portion of the rocky intertidal zone is dominated by...
algae and surf grasses
An organism that tolerates a wide range of salinities is referred to as...
euryhaline
Overproduction of organic matter resulting in anoxic conditions is called...
eutrophication
Nekton are restricted to particular ocean areas by...
differences in food, water pressure, salinity, temperature
The distribution of benthic biomass is related to...
primary productivity
Some fish maintin body temperatures significantly higher than the surrounding water.
True
Which set of fins are used for turning and breaking?
Pectoral and pelvic
In temperate oceans during the winter months...
nutrient concentrations are high, and solar input is low
The California gray whale is unusual because it stirs up bottom sediment in order to feed.
True
Primary productivity in tropical marine systems is limited by the amount of available solar radiations
False
Energy flow is unidirectional in ecosystems
True
The most important limiting factor in rocky intertidal communities is...
space
Planktonic organisms often have needle-like structures that...
reduce the rate at which the organism sinks
The correct heirarchical ordering of taxonomic levels from the largest to the smallest
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
One adaptation for deep diving in marine mammals is an increase in heart rate during the dive
False
Animals higher in the food chain are larger than animals lower in the food chain
True
The sublittoral zone is the area...
below the intertidal zone on the continental shelf.
Sharks have lunate caudal fins
False
Ab area of the open ocean where the rate of primary productivity is very low is referred to as an...
oligotrophic area
The percentage of biomass regularly recycled in the euphotic zone is about...
90%
All of the following are adaptive solutions employed by marine organisms to prevent sinking except...
decreasing cellular fat content
The diversity of benthic animals decreases beneather upwelling zones.
True
Streamlining in fishes reduces the energy they expend to swim
True
Tropical marine waters have the lowest rate of primary productivity in the world's ocean.
True
Productivity in polar oceans is....
light limited
Zooxanthellae are important members of hydrothermal-vent communities
False
The spray zone of the rocky shore is the area between the highest high tide and the lowest tide.
False
The seasonal temperature range in the deep ocean is usually...
negligible
A common annelid found in a sandy beach environment is the...
lugworm
High Viscosity sea water benefits floating organisms.
True
The by products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water
False
Deep-sea sediment communities have extremely large numbers of species of animals.
True
The three varieties of seeps on the seafloor include hypersaline, hydrocarbon, and...
subduction zone seeps.
If 10,000 units of energy were contained in the primary producers, on average how many units of energy would expect to be transferred to the third-order consumers?
10 units
Photosynthesis is the main source of food at hypersaline seeps.
False
The depth to which a bivalve can bury itself depends on the...
length of its siphons.
The Mysticeti include the humpback, gray, and sperm whales
False
Strategies for staying afloat in pelagic environments include having an air bladder, having lots of body fat, and being unusually dense.
False
The hadal zone is associated with deep-ocean trenches.
True
Phytoplankton are small because of predation pressure
False
Whale that is more abundant now than before whaling began
Gray Whale
Which feeding strategy involves ingesting sediment?
Deposit feeding
When compared to their warmer-water counterparts, cold-water plankton often...
are larger in size
Coral reefs contain more algal biomass than animal biomass
True
Productivity in tropical ocean is...
nutrient limited
"By catch" refers to...
non-target species that are caught along with commerical species
The buttress zone of a coral reef is likely to have which variety of coral?
massive branching corals
The caudal fin of fast cruising fish such as tuna is...
lunate
The symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected is...
commensalism
Correctly link a discriptor with a life style...
nekton-swimming
Corals with delicate skeletons are usually found...
on the reef slope
Male fiddler crabs use their enlarged claw to
attract a mate
Some muscle fiber is abundanct in fish that are curisers, but white muscle fiber is abundant in those that are lungers
True
The mass present at a given time of a population of fish is called its...
standing stock.
Members of the phylum Cnidaria have stinging cells
True
The largest yield of commerical fish comes from...
coastal areas
Which of the following factors does not limit coral growth?
High concentrations of calcium carbonate in the water

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