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WWI 2nd set


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First Battle of the Marne
French learned Germans plan; 600 taxicabs rushed soldiers from Paris. Germany retreated 60 miles. Quick victory no longer seemed possible.
Ottoman Empire
included the Balkan region.
Some of the Balkans in new nations: Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia
Self determination
allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live
Glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war.
no man's land
space between opposing trenches
A region in southeast Europe[Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians]
War's impact on women
worked with or replaced men in work force, served in military. changed peoples views on women's capabilities
Powder Keg of Europe
Balkans -- home to an assortment of ethnic groups: Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians and others
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
ended war between Germany and Russia March 1918
Kaiser Wilheim II
ruler of Germany in 1888
British passenger ship carrying ammunition, sunk by German U-Boat killing 1,198, 128 Americans
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to Austro-Hungarian throne
Russia's land losses
Romania and Poland gained Russian territory. Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent nations.
Deep devotion to one's nation
Machine guns
fires ammunition automatically; could wipe out waves of attackers
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Annexed by Austria, but Serbia wanted to get them
Germany's losses
redrawn borders, colonies mandated to League of Nations, reparations to the Allies,
Otto von Bismarck
used war to unify Germany. He saw France as Germany's threat to peace.
Big Four
Woodrow Wilson of US, Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy
Gavrilo Princip
19 year old member of the Black Hand who assassinated Franz and Sophie Ferdinand on June 28, 1914
armored combat vehicle that moved on chain tracks; could move through barbed wire, over trenches
The Triple Entente
Great Britain, France and Russia [who felt threatened by Germany] 1907
Poison gas
masks needed to protect soldiers; caused blinding or severe blisters, some caused death by choking
Europe's Great Powers before WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France.
Battle of Verdun
Germans and French lost 300,000 men each
Russia supported Serbia independence. Austria felt threatened by Serbia's growth
Gallipoli campaign
assaults to secure Dardanelles
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically or socially.
Treaty of Versailles
peace treaty that punished Germany
list of demands that if not met, will lead to serious consequences
unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany sinks any ship in waters around Britain
Austrian Ultimatum
1, end to all anti-Austrian activity. 2. Austrian investigation into assassination.
Eastern Front
German and Russian border. Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians and Turks. a more mobile war
Chain reaction
Austria declares war on Serbia; Russia backs Serbia; Germany declares war on Russia; Germany declares war on France; Germany invades Belgium; Great Britain declares war on Germany
an agreement to stop fighting
Nov 11, 1918. Today called Veterans Day
Western Front
deadlocked region in northern France where neither side can win
Astro Hungrian Empire splits
Austria, Hungary, csechoslovakia, Yugoslavia recognized as independent nations.
neither side can win; deadlock
Second Battle of the Marne
Central Powers began to crumble. First Bulgarians, then Ottoman Turks
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Battle of Somme
British and German -- half a million casualities each. Br gained 5 miles
Schlieffen Plan
General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen [SCHLEE-fuhn]go west; attack & defeat France [enter thru Belgium], then east to attack Russia
Trench Warfare
soldiers fought each other from trenches -- mud everywhere, rats, no fresh food, little sleep
Central Powers
Germany and Austria-Hungary in heart of Europe [Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire later]
total war
countries devoted all their resources to the war effort
Allied Powers or Allies
Great Britain, France and Russia [Japan, Italy, later United States]
League of Nations
an internationaol association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations
Promise to back another in conflict
primary weapon was torpedo, self propelled underwater missle
people could buy only small amounts of items that were also needed for the war effort.
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President asked Congress to declare war on Germany April 2, 1917
narrow sea strait was gateway to Ottoman capital, Constantinople [defeat Turks create supply line to Russia]
Spanish flu
killed 20 million people world wide. deadly strain of influenza
Arthur Zimmermann
Germany's foreign secretary
Zimmermann note
to German ambassador in Mexico; Germany would help Mexico reconquer land lost to US if Mex would ally with Germany
one sided information designed to persuade -- to keep up morale and support for the war. war posters
Wilson's Fourteen Points
end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced national armies and navies, adjustment of colonial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples. Self determination
take photographs, drop bombs, guns shoot through propellers for dogfights

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