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AS exam terms

Terms

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Harlem Renaissance
The flowering of African American artistic creativity during the 1920's centered in the Harlem community of NYC
JFK
Promised active leadership to "Get America moving again"
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telegraph
Flexible response
A policy developed by the Kennedy Administration that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crisis rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons. Increased defense spending in order to boost conventional military forces and create a branch of the army called the Special Forces
Cold War
The state of hostility without direct military conflict that developed between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII
Freedmen's Bureau
A federal agency set up to help former slaves after the civil war
Compromise of 1877
Democrats agree to accept the Republican candidate even though he had lost the popular vote. Included the withdrawal of federal troops from southern states
McCarthyism
The attacks often unsubstantiated by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others of those suspected of being Communist in the early 1950's
Share cropping
A system in which land owners give land, seed, and tools in return for part of the crops they raise
Labor movement-AFL
An alliance of trade and craft unions formed in 1886
Brown v. Board
Supreme Court rules separate but equal education for black and white students is unconstitutional
Harry Truman
33rd President who took office after Roosevelt's death. Used "The Buck Stops Here"
15th Amendment
Right to vote
Truman Doctrine
A US policy announced by President Harry Truman of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
Roosevelt Corollary
The extension of the Monroe Doctrine announced by TDR under which the US claimed the right to protect its economic interests by means of military intervention in the affairs of Western Hemisphere nations
Marshall Plan
The program proposed by secretary of state George Marshal under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII
Horizontal integration
Companies producing similar products merge
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery
Brinkmanship
The practice of threatening an enemy with massive military retaliation for any aggression
Reconstruction
The period of rebuilding following the civil war during which the confedrate states were readmitted into the union
Dust Bowl
Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico were made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms during the 1930's
Mapp v. Ohio
Court rules that evidence seized illegally could not be used in state courts
14th Amendment
All people born in the US are citizens, guarantees equal protection under the law
Nixon
President who hoped to win against JFK by riding on the coattails of Eisenhower's popularity
Dynamic conservatism
Eisenhower's policy- "Conservative when it comes to money and liberal when it comes to human beings."
Plessy v. Ferguson
"separate but equal"
Eisenhower Doctrine
A US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country announced by President Eisenhower
Thomas Edison
Invented the light bulb and the world's first research laboratory
Great Society
President Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the US
Prohibition
The banning of manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages
MacArthur
General in command of Allied forces of the islands during the Japanese invasion
Tenant farming
A system in which foreign workers supply their own tools and rent farm land for cash
Miranda v. Arizona
Ruled that all suspects must be read their rights before questioning
Gideon v. Wainwright
Justices required criminal courts to provide free legal counsel to those who could not afford it.
Scalawags
White southerners who joined the republican party
Carpet Baggers
Northerners who moved south after the war
Korematsu v. US
Gave military officials the power to limit the civil rights of Japanese Americans.
Automania
The period when everyone needs cars to get to work and other places, so roads had to be constructed, more job opportunities created for those jobs. But, poor who could not afford cars, couldn't find jobs without a car.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave African American citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws or "black codes"
Vertical integration
buying out suppliers to control the market
George Marshall
Army Chief of Staff. Pushed for formation of WAAC
Populism
Late 19th century political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of foreign working laborers.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or within other countries
Social Darwinism
Economic and social philosophy supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin theory of evolution, natural selection, holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest
Great Depression
A period lasting from 1929-1940 in which the US economy was in severe decline and millions of Americans were unemployed
New Deal
FDR's program to alleviate the problems of the great depression focusing on relief for the needy, union economic recovery, and financial reform. (The tree R's)

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